Leni The Life and Work of Leni Riefenstahl
AF Arnold Fanck アルノルト・ファンク
AH Adolf Hitler アドルフ・ヒトラー
AS Albert Speer アルベルト・シュペーア
BDC Berlin Document Center ベルリン記録センター
DIARIES Diaries of a Cosmopolitan, by Count Harry Kessler 『ワイマル日記』ハリー・ケスラー
FM Friedrich Mainz フリードリヒ・マインツ
HS Harry Sokal ハリー・ゾカル
HVJ Heinz von Jaworsky ハインツ・フォン・フォルスキ
INT. interview インタビュー
IPS Isabella Ploberger Schlichting イザベラ・プローベルガー・シュリヒティング
JG Joseph Goebbels ヨーゼフ・ゲッベルス
KK Kurt Kreuger クルト・クルーガー
LR Leni Riefenstahl レニ・リーフェンシュタール
LRM Leni Riefenstahl. A Memoir, by Leni Riefenstahl 『レニ・リーフェンシュタール回想』 英語版
LRMG Memoiren, by Leni Riefenstahl『レニ・リーフェンシュタール』ドイツ語版
LRO Leni Riefenstahl and "Olympia," by Cooper C. Graham 『レニ・リーフェンシュタールと「オリンピア」』クーパー・G. グレアム（未邦訳）
LRVA Vanishing Africa, by Leni Riefenstahl 『消えゆくアフリカ』レニ・リーフェンシュタール
PW Peggy Wallace ペギー・ウォレス
SB author スティーヴン・バック（著者)
U.S.ARMY U.S. Army Intelligence Report アメリカ陸軍諜報部報告書
vii［削除］ Mann: Magic Mountain, p. 112. "Die Kunst ist sittlich, sofern sie weckt. " 『魔の山』トーマス・マン
５［８］ 「壊れたレコード」"broken record": From Die Zeit, August 19, 2002.
５［８］ 続く記述については以下を参照narrative that follows: See also Chapter 3 in these pages. This account is derived from several sources, notably Kreimeier, Kracauer, and Elsaesser, but is mostly based on the author's viewing of three 35-millimeter reels of Ways to Strength and Beauty at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., in June 2004 and July 2006. Though I have chosen 1925 because it was the film's release date, it was filmed over the previous year and a half. Riefenstahl always denied being in the film, as, for example, to Rainer Rother (Rother, p. 186, n. 30). Many sources refer inexactly or tentatively to LR's participation in this film. Jurgen Trimborn, for example, claims she is identifiable in exterior exercise scenes (p. 59). She is not. A viewing copy is available through Transit Film in Munich, which administers its exhibition, but no video or DVD copies are available.
第1部 野心 CHAPTER ONE: METROPOLIS
7［削除］ Gay: In Weimar Culture, p. 128.
7［削除］ Ratcliffe: Quoted in Everett, p. 9.
１ ダンスへの熱狂CHAPTER ONE: METROPOLIS
9［12］「私は何か偉大な存在になりたい」"I want to become": Gruel-Wemper.
9［12］「どこにもない都市」「つねに変化して……」"nowhere city" and "becoming": Ernst Bloch, quoted in Fritsche, p. 7.
9［12］大ベルリンGreater Berlin: Craig, Germans, p. 272.
9［13］「世界最速の都市」"fastest city": Schutte and Sprengel, pp. 95-99.
10［13］日刊新聞や週刊誌 dailies and weeklies: Fritzsche, pp. 12ff. Fritzsche cites 93 newspapers. Other sources count as many as 140. Peter Gay estimated 120 in Weimar Culture.
10［14］皇帝ウィルヘルム二世 Kaiser Wilhelm: From his dedication speech for Berlin's Victory Column in 1901 (Everett, pp. 21-23).
10［14］ヴェネチアより多い more bridges than in Venice: Levy p. 76.
10［14］「私の定めた法律や……」"An art which": Everett, pp. 21-23.
10［14］「失われた理想郷」"vanished Arcadia": Fest, Hitler, p. 96.
10［15］「黙示的な風景」"apocalyptic landscapes": See Roters and Schulz, who borrowed the term from Meidner and used it generically for the 1987 "Ich und die Stadt" exhibition in Berlin.
11［15］「共同住宅病」"Tenement sickness": Korff and Rurup, p. 304; infant mortality: p. 42. The official date of this statistic is 1905.
11［15］「短編映画の撮影もなされた」 one-reel movies being shot in Wedding: Berg-Ganschow and Jacobsen, p. 194. The small studio became known as the Komet-Film-Atelier in 1911 and from 1918 on was called Rex-Atelier. It was remodeled in the early 1920s and became home to actor-director Lupu Pick, who made well-known films there, including Scherben (1921) and Sylvester (1923).
11［15］火葬場 crematorium: Korff and Rurup, p. 241.
11［16］ツィレとヴェディング Zille and Berlin-Wedding: Ibid., pp. 39-41.
11［16］「階級制度は大嫌い」 "I hated": The friend was Gitta Sereny, German Trauma, p. 240.
11［16］「市役所で結婚式をあげ」 Riefenstahl civil wedding and family dates, here and later: Reichsschrifttumskammer, "Abstammungs-Nachweis" ("Proof of Descent"), Leni Riefenstahl file, Berlin Document Center (September 6, 1933). LR formally petitioned the film office for her identification card on October 2, 1933 , and received card number 1352. LR file, BDC, as above.
11 father's firm and architects: Int. PW/IPS, July 2-3, 1971. Schlichting remembered meeting Alfred while she was working at an architectural firm in Berlin in the 1920s headed by Ernst Petersen, nephew of film director Dr. Arnold Fanck (see Chapter 3). This cannot be dated but raises the intriguing possibility that LR had an early contact to Fanck through her father that she never acknowledged.
12［17］生まれつき内斜視だった born cross-eyed: LRM, p. 3. An odd editing error exists in the English translation of the memoirs, in which Scherlach is misspelled Scherlack throughout. The former is correct.
12［17］祖母と出産の事情 mother's mother and childbirth: LRMG, p. 15; in LRM, the same story is on p. 8.
12［17］ユダヤの血を引いているという噂 Jewish rumors in the press: See, for instance, "La Disgrace de Leni Riefenstahl," Paris-Soir, June 14, 1937, which seems to have been the primary source for subsequent reports published in Switzerland and elsewhere. In America, see "Is Hitler in Love with a Jewess?" in Liberty, July 16, 1938, or Padraic King's "The Woman Behind Hitler," Detroit News, February 21, 1937, both sensaiional in tone.
12［17］ゲッベルスはしつこくレニを誹謗する噂を流しつづけた malicious campaign orchestrated by Goebbels: See LRM, pp. 206-7. For LR's anger on this subject, see int. PW/LR, August 8, 1971, tape 16a, transcript p. 12.
12［17］ナチ党員となったファンク Fanck as Nazi: He joined the party on April 1, 1940, and carried membership number 7,617,249 (Horak, "Fanck: Traume," p. 59).
12［17］イザベラ・プローベルガー Isabella Ploberger: Int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, July 2-3, 1971, tape 2, transcript pp. 17-18.
12［18］身元確認の文書 genealogical record of ancestry: The documents state that LR's grandfather Karl Scherlach was born in 1842 into a family that then spelled its surname "Schidlach." "Abstammungs-Nachweis," as above, from which family dates, names, and other details have been taken.
13［18］子守女がオティリーであることはほぼ間違いない Ottilie was almost certainly: See LR, Vogue, August 2002, p. 228, plus LRM, pp. 22-23, and LRMG, p. 42.
13［19］プロテスタントと認められた confirmed as Protestant: LRM, p. 11.
13［19］レニは母を心から愛しつづけた "loved her": Sereny, German Trauma, p. 237.
13［19］ハインツが生まれて Heinz, was born: LR gives his birth in Wedding and in 1905, but his marriage license certifies birthplace and date as Neukolln on March 5, 1906. Standesamt Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Nr. 1001, 1935-H.
13［20］のんびりした緑豊かなツォイテン Zeuthen was idyllic: LRM, pp. 7-10.
14［20］引越しが多かった Berlin moves: LRMG, p. 24. LR mentions "Yorkstrasse." "Yorckstrasse" is the correct spelling.
14［20］「いつでも一番の親友だった」 "best friend": LRM, p. 38.
14［20］詩や芝居 poetry and plays: Ibid., pp. 4, 7.
14［20］「強烈な魅力」 "driving force": Ibid., p. 4.
14［21］「神様」 "Dear God" Ibid.,p. 3.
14［21］「それに虫くらい」 "even insects": Ibid., p. 7. LR also cites poetry she wrote to the trees in Vogue, August 2002, p. 226, which began: "Sie waren zwei Bruder" (They were two brothers).
14［21］架空の航空会社 airline industry: LRM, pp. 10-11. Unlikely as this sounds, LR wrote a letter detailing these plans to a friend. The original letter, quoted in her memoirs, was displayed in a retrospective exhibition at the Potsdam Film Museum in 1998-99.
15［22］ギムナジウム Gymnasium story: Int. PW/LR, August 6, 1971, tape 14, transcript 2. See also Wallace's dissertation, p. 59.
15［22］ おとぎ話fairy tales: LRM, p. 4; LRMG, p. 17, where the magazine's title is given as Es war einmal. The English translation Fairy Tale World is approximate but incorrect.
15［22］「何一つ不満のない……」 "It was not": Sereny, German Trauma, p. 237. The acquaintance was, of course, Gitta Sereny.
16［23］「良き時代」 "the good times": LRM, p. 14.
16［23］「もやもやした雲」「夢見る人」 "a cloud" and "a dreamer": Ibid., pp. 13, 6.
16［23］『阿片』 The film was titled Opium: The film was press-screened in Berlin on February 6, 1919. LR dates her audition vaguely, but late 1918 is likely correct (Bier, p. 321).
16［24］映画デビュー motion picture debut: LRMG, p. 29. She dates this experience vaguely as well, but it may have occurred after the Opium tryouts rather than before.
16［24］他の応募者が勝ちとった went to someone else: The role went to an actress named Sigrid Hohenfels: Bier, p. 321.
16［24］「部屋に駆けこんで」 "desire to rush": LRM p. 12.
17［25］「街角に立って」 "I stood": LR, Vogue, August 2002, p. 228.
17［25］暗殺 assassination estimate: Kessler, Diaries of a Cosmopolitan, p. 189.
17［26］「なぜこんな」 "the faintest notion": LRM, p. 13.
17［26］ハリー・ケスラー伯爵 Kessler quote: Diaries, pp. 59-60.
18［26］「狂気をはらんだ状態」 "a kind of insanity": Stefan Zweig, quoted in Gay, Weimar Culture, p.130.
19［28］「痛みや疲労なんて」 "No pain": LRM, p. 12.
19［28］「良心の咎めなど」 "We had few": Ibid.
19［28］アニタ・ベルバー Anita Berber: Mostly from Fischer.
19［29］「ドイツの下水」 "national sewer": Fest, Hitler, p. 94.
19［29］「凶暴な象みたいな怒鳴り声」 "roaring like a rogue elephant": LRM, p. 14.
19［29］工芸学校 School of Arts and Crafts: Ibid., p. 17.
20［30］ヘラ・グルーエル Hela Gruel: Gruel-Wemper.
20［30］「シベリア」 "Siberia": Ibid.
20［30］「生きているかぎり」 "as long as I Iived": LRM, p. 14.
20［31］「手管」 "clever idea" Ibid., p. 19.
２ デビュー CHAPTER TWO: DEBUTS
21［32］アルフレート・リーフェンシュタール Alfred Riefenstahl: LRM, p. 22.
21［32］「男だったら」 "How I wish": Ibid., p. 19.
21［32］「おまえが男の子で」 "Too bad": Ibid., p. 11.
21［32］ フェミニストの手本としてのレニLR as feminist role model: The New York Film Festival in 1973, for example, attempted to group LR with Agnes Varda and Shirley Clarke as feminist pioneers.
21［32］ 性的傾向sexual preference: There are commentators eager to label her with lesbian adventures, but the claim seems unsupported. An example is the Russian George Rony, who worked with Eisenstein and called Riefenstahl "an alley cat" and worse. Int. PW/George Rony, February 2, 1971, tape 26.
21［33］ツヴァイク Zweig: From Die Welt von Gestern, p. 287, quoted in Gay, Weimar Culture, p. 130.
22［33］「私はとてもおくてだった」 "I was a very late": The friend was Gitta Sereny, who recounts the conversation in The German Trauma, p. 238.
22［33］詩人の息子 son of the free-1iving poet: His name was Paul Walden. LR incorrectly calls him Paul Lasker-Schuler. The relationship is omitted in the English-language version (LRMG, pp. 29-30).
22［34］ケスラー伯爵の評 Kessler quote: Kessler, Diaries, p. 114.
22［34］手首を切った slashed his wrists: Walter Lubovski receives more space in LRMG than in the English-1anguage version (LRMG, pp. 23ff, 43ff). His brother Oskar later became LR's personal physician, and his sister Hilda married the sculptor Josef Thorak, about whom LR would produce a film during World War II (LRMG, p. 178). The family was Jewish. The quotation can be found in LRM, p. 24.
22［34］「銀の光沢のある緑色の絹のドレス」 "silvery green silk gown": LRM, p. 28.
22［34］美人コンテストと編集長 beauty contest and editor: Ibid., p. 29.
22［34］フォルメラー Vollmoeller: Ibid., p. 30. Vollmoeller was notorious for his attentions to young women, though he had a long-term alliance with the actress and journalist Ruth Landshoff.
23［35］騎手の妻 jockey's wife: LRMG, p. 32.
23［36］「心に傷を残した」 "traumatic" LRM,p. 33; for "rape," see LR, Vogue, August 2002, p. 253.
23［36］「彼の束縛を」 "bondage": LRM, p. 38.
24［37］ハフナー Haffner: Haffner, Defying Hitlerr, p. 45.
24［37］舞台の仕事 job on the stage: LR, Vogue, p. 228. She says she was trying to get a job as a dance extra at a theater on the Nollendorfplatz.
24［37］「頑固なところは」 "You are as stubborn": LRM, p. 22.
24［38］「嫌悪感」 "repugnance": Ibid., p. 33.
24［38］ウィグマンのダンス学校 Wigman school: Ibid., p. 34.
25［38］戦後のインフレ postwar inflation: Haffner, Defying Hitlerr, pp. 50ff; Friedrich, Before the Deluge, pp. 122-27.
25［39］モデルになった sketches of her "dreadful": LRMG, p. 56. LR's friendship with the artist, who was named Willy Jaeckel, is almost entirely missing in the English translation.
25［39］バルト海でのエピソード Baltic Sea story: LRM, pp. 28, 35ff; LRMG, pp. 50ff, 6Qff. Also, int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971. There are confiicts in the two versions of the story. LR says it was in Warnemunde, near Rostock on the Baltic, and Sokal cites Travemunde, near Lubeck. As Sokal was there to gamble and the latter town had a casino (Rostock had shipyards), it is likely that LR's version is faulty.
25［39］ハインリヒ・リヒャルト・ゾカル Heinrich Richard Sokal: Sokal was born February 20, 1898, in Craiova, Romania, and died in Munich on March 7, 1979.
25［39］「十秒くらいだった」 "And after ten seconds": Int. PW/HS, as cited, tape 12, transcript p. 1. Sokal later called himself Henry in exile from Nazi Germany.
26［40］「ゾカルが私に夢中になっていることには」 "I realized": LRM,p. 28.
26［40］ゾカルとの情事 their affair: Sokal, in his PW interview, is frank about their love affair, here and later.
26［41］ブロックからの引用 Bullock quote: Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, pp. 90-91.
26［41］「賠償の支払いを」 observer: It was William Shirer in Rise and Fall, p. 96.
26［41］カーショー Kershaw: Hubris, p. 201.
27［41］マルカム・カウリー【原書のCrowleyはミススペルと思われる】 Malcolm Crowley: Quoted in Friedrich, Deluge, p. 125.
27［42］「どうってことないわ」 "Don't worry": Int. PW/HS, Munich, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 3.
27［42］「ぼくは心底、ギャンブルが好きだからね」 "I'm a gambler": Ibid., p. 1.
27［43］ わずか1ドルですんだone American dollar: LRMG, p. 61. How LR's father financed her October debut in Berlin has not been determined. LR's writings give no clue. Harry Sokal might have been assumed the source of finance in his romantic campaign of LR, but he pointedly claims to have only financed the Munich appearance and a later one in Innsbruck.
28［43］音楽堂付属演奏家 house musicians: LR refers to the Klamt School's Herbert Klamt as her accompanist in all concerts, but the program for the evening in Munich credits the Paul Mueller-Melborn chamber trio (LRMG, p. 87).
28［43］情熱的なタイトル dances and titles: Quoted from the original program, reproduced in LRMG, p. 61.
28［44］ 新聞の値段newsstand prices: Rother (German), p. 23.
28［44］ 批評 critics: Munchner Neuesten Nachrichten, October 25, 1923, and Munchner Zeitung, October 25, 1923, both cited in Rother (German), pp. 23-24, and Rother (English), pp. 15-16. The translation here is partly from Dr. Anke Heimann.
28［44］「思っていたよりずっと」大きな成功 "triumph":LRM, p. 26.
28［44］「おまえを見なしたよ」 "Now, I believe": LRMG, p. 62.
29［44］デーブリーンの経験 Doblin anecdote: Willett, p. 75.
29［45］フォルメラーにチケット Vollmoeller tickets: LRM, pp. 36-37. Reinhardt was not personally involved in booking acts for his theaters, though Vollmoeller may have used influence in securing the bookings. LR's implication that Reinhardt was personally responsible is misleading.
29［45］稼ぎと衣装 earnings and clothes: LRM,p. 37.
29［46］ロビンソン Robison: LR misspells his name "Artur" (LRM, p. 38). It was Arthur: He was born in Chicago.
29［46］スケジュールが合わなかった conflicting schedules: Pietro was shot from August to October 1924, according to Wolfgang Jacobsen, p. 276. LR was preparing dance bookings for the same period, though they were interrupted by injury.
29［46］「批評でも観客動員でも」 "indescribable": LRMG, p. 64.
30［46］ゾカルと公演契約と毛皮 Sokal and bookings and furs: LRM, pp. 38-39.
30［47］「お金で買われたような」 "I had":LR, Vogue, p. 253.
30［47］「ダンサーでいられたら」 "I wish with body and soul": Quoted in int. Hoffmann/LR, Die Welt, January 7, 2002.
30［47］プレス用のスクラップﾌﾞｯｸ press book: It was titled "Die Tanzerin Leni Riefenstahl, Auszuge aus Pressekritiken" (The Dancer Leni Riefenstahl, Excerpts from Critical Reviews).
30［48］「ボードビルの舞台の呼び物」 "vaudeville": National Zeitung, December 17, 1923.
30［48］「魅力的な天才少女」 "charming wonder girl": Kampfer, Zurich, February 24, 1924.
30［48］「驚くべき才能」 "marvelously gifted," etc.: As quoted and translated in LRM, p. 36.
30［48］劇場の支配人は気づかなかった no manager was likely to notice: Rainer Rother points out that the critic here published his review on December 12, 1923, in the Munchner Neuesten Nachrichten in reference to a return concert LR gave following her successful Berlin debut. LR consistently quotes this review in an edited version as if it referred to her maiden concert. See LRM, p. 36.
31［48］「頌歌」 "hymn of praise": LRM, p. 36.
31［48］「音楽のなかで立つ」 "When one sees": This is translated from the German version of LR's memoir. The English version omits the names of German dancers the reader presumably would not know and reads: "When one sees this girl move to the music, one has an awareness that here is a dancer who will appear perhaps once in a thousand years, an artiste of consummate grace and unparalleled beauty" (ellipses in original), which equally, if differently; distorts the critic's original meaning. See Fred Hildebrandt, Berliner Tageblatt , December 21, 1923, reprinted in Fred Hildebrandt: Tageblatter, Erster Band 1923/24 (Berlin: Landsberg-Verlag, 1925), pp. 139ff. The English translation here is Dr. Anke Heimann's. LR misquoted this review as late as August 2002 in German Vogue, where she again cited the line "the dancer who appears once every thousand years" as if it referred to her and not to an ideal that her performance failed to realize.
31［49］ヒルデブラントの文章 Hildebrandt had gone on: For the omitted portions of Hildebrandt's quote, see same as cited in preceding endnote.
31［49］「千年に一人」の天才 arrival of a genius: Rother makes this point on p. 29 and throughout. His subtitle refiects the thesis: The Seduction of Genius.
31［49］シコフスキー Schikowski: Vorwrts, November 16, 1923, cited in Rother (German), p. 203.
３ 映画界へCHAPTER THREE: CLIMBING
33［51］「映画を作るつもりよ」 "A picture": Telegram from LR to Harry Sokal, circa 1925. Int. PW/HS, Munich, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 4.
33［51］「思いがけず」 "unexpected": LRM, p. 41.
33［52］「人類の再生」 "regeneration": Quoted by Kracauer, p. 142.
33［52］センセーションを巻きおこした hit of the day: Janssen, pp. 47ff.
34［52］「ドイツの軍事力の回復を求める」 "advocacy for restoring": Kreimeier, p. 177.
34［52］『ダイ・ヴェルトビューネ』 Die Weltbuhne: Quoted in ibid.
34［54］レニの名前が出た媒体 publicity still: Der Querschnitt, April 1925, pp. 24-25; republished in Der Querschnitt: Das Magazine der aktuellen Ewigkeitswerte, 1924-1933 (Berlin: Ullstein, 1981), pp. 30-31.
34［54］ウィグマンと群舞のダンサー Wigman's ensemble dancers: Trimborn erroneously cites LR's appearance in outdoor exercise scenes (p. 59). Kreimeier cites Ufa documents confirming participation in the film (German version, p. 296) but does not claim to have seen it.
34［55］「カムバック」 "comeback": Rother, p. 253. Rainer Rother located letters in the Bavarian State Archives (Akte Staatstheater, 12123) dating from August and September 1924 inquiring about possible future "comeback" dates between October 1924 and January 1925, though no such engagements took place (Rother, pp. 200-201).
34［55］「まるで進歩がないと感じた」 "I sensed": LRM, p. 57.
35［55］ポスター poster description: Ibid., pp. 40-41.
35［55］「私の人生を完全に変える」 "changed my life": Ibid., p. 40.
36［56］ハイネによれば、ノヴァリースは Heine on Novalis: The Romantic School and Other Essays (New York: Continuum, 1985), p. 76.
36［56］批評家は山岳映画について Critics routinely alluded: For example, re Mountain of Destiny, Der Kinematograph's critic wrote: "These are images full of the Romantic, in their composition thoroughly stylized after the painting conventions of the 19th century" (quoted in Horak and Pickler, p. 29).
36［56］レンチュラー Rentschler: Ministry, p. 32.
36［57］本物の危険 as real and as dangerous as it looked: The Holy Mountain, for example, begins with titles announcing: "The well-known athletes who collaborated on 'The Holy Mountain' beg the public not to mistake their feats for photographic tricks, which they are not. The outdoor scenes were shot in the most beautiful regions of the Alps over the period of a full year. Actual German, Norwegian, and Austrian athletes ran the ski races. The screen story, timelessly in and of the mountains, derives from twenty years' Iife experiences in the high mountams."
36［57］「山並み、雲、アルプスの斜面」 "The very first": LRM,pp. 41-42.
36［57］「たぐいまれな「きらめくピッケル」」 "incomparable" and "ice-axes": Kracauer, Caligari, pp. 110-11.
36［58］「一種の英雄的な理想主義」 He detected "a kind": Kracauer, pp. 111-12, introduction, and jacket. The classic complaint about Ktacauer is that he is polemical, but that is his aim: His introduction, written in May 1946, a year after VE Day, cites the then-new United Nations and the difficulties it faced in dealing with a postwar Germany whose "deep psychological dispositions" (p. v) he believed "influenced the course of events during that time and which will have to be reckoned with in the post-Hitler era."
36［58］「未熟さと山への情熱」 "Immaturity": Kracauer, Caligari, pp. 111-12.
37［58］ オーストリア・スキー協会 Austrian Ski Association: Osterreichische Skiverband's Aryan policy: The vote took place October 7, 1923. It inspired a counterorganization, the "Allgemeiner Skiverband)," in anticipation of the 1924 Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix, to which Austria, though not Germany, was invited.
37［59］当時の批評家 contemporary writer: T. Brandlmeier, "Arnold Fanck," in Cinegraph, 1984, quoted in Elsaesser, Weimar Cinema, p. 391.
38［60］配給会社が権利を買って distribution company acquired it: It was the German-American Film Drstribution Company (Horak, "Dr. Arnold Fanck: Traume vom Wolkenmeer und einer guten Stube," p. 29).
38［60］「心を奪われた」 "spellbound":LRM, p. 42.
38［61］ゾカルはレニの弟が好きで Sokal on Heinz: Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 3.
38［61］「ずっと忘れていた子供時代のおとぎ話」 "long-forgotten fairy tales": LRM, p. 42.
38［61］「緑の牧草地から青空に向かってそそり立つ赤い岸壁」 "red cliffs": LR, Kampf, p. 11. A parallel and similar passage occurs in LRM. In neither version does LR allude to Sokal's presence.
39［61］ゾカルの回想 Sokal and in following: Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, Munich, tapes 12 and 13. Here, tape 13, transcript pp. 21-23.
39［62］建築家だったトレンカー Trenker as architect: Trenker, Kameraden, p. 200.
39［62］「少々のぼせあがっている」 "exalted": Georg Fruhstorfer, "So wurde ich Luis Trenker," Die Neue Welt, September 1971.
39［62］「登山者の心得」 Trenker's "Ten Commandments": In Trenker, Meine Berge, p. 9.
39［62］「これから勉強するわ」 "I'll learn how":LRM,p. 43.
39［62］「あの人に会わなければ」 Trenker and "I must": Int. PW/HS, tape 12, transcript 12, p. 4.
39［63］ファンク博士の電話番号（トレンカーから聞きだした） Trenker and Fanck's telephone number: LR, Kampf, p. 12. In this version, LR says she called Trenker in Bolzano from Berlin to get Fanck's number.
40［63］ラーンにはつてがあった Rahn arranges meeting with Fanck: LRM, p. 43.
40［63］プリブラム博士 Pribram: LR, Kampf, p. 14.
40［63］誰にも知らせなかったのに Though no one knew (and following): LRM, pp. 43-45.
40［64］昔からレニを知っていた Fanck knew who she was: Riess, Das gab's nur einmal, vol. 1, pp. 252-62. Riess gives a breezy insider's account whose source appears to be LR. He maintains that Fanck knew who LR was when they met, as her well-publicized dance appearances in Berlin had occurred only months earlier. In his 1971 interview with Peggy Wallace cited here, Fanck claims to have seen her dance before writing his script. Riess does not mention Sokal.
40［64］ファンクは手紙で Fanck to Trenker: Trenker, Alles, p. 209.
40［64］ゾカルの興味深い回想 Sokal offers an intriguing variant: Int. PW/HS, as cited, tape 12, transcript 12, p. 4.
40［64］ゾカルの共同出資 Sokal's deal and Leni: Horak, p. 39; also in Infield, pp. 163ff. Sokal's own version is on tape 12, transcript pp. 5ff.
41［65］「レニに熱を上げており」 "very much in love": Int. PW/HS, as cited, tape 12, transcript 12, p. 5.
41［65］「ファンクとの情事」 "love affair with Fanck": Ibid., pp. 5ff.
41［65］「日ごとに、思いを募らせて」 "grew more": LRM, p. 47.
41［65］「辛い決断」 "painful decision": Ibid., p. 45.
41［65］「心のなかはひどい分裂状態」 "That was": Int. PW/LR, August 7, 1971, tape 15, transcript 2, p. 14.
42［68］「デスマスク」 "a death mask": Rentschler, Ministry, p. 36.
42［68］「男同士の愛の物語」 "A love story": Horak, p. 32.
43［70］「みっともなく、変な顔」 "ugly and strange": LR, Kampf, p. 15.
43［70］「テクニックのない映画など」 "that film": Ibid.
43［70］「彼は私を愛していたから」 "because he loved me": Int. PW/LR, August 8, 1971, tape 16a, transcript 16a, p. 15.
43［70］「私は生まれて初めて」 "the first time": LRM, p. 48.
44［70］「蒼白になって硬直し」 "thunderstruck" : Ibid.
44［70］「どういう結果になるのだろう」 "What would happen": Ibid., pp. 48-49.
44［70］「頭がおかしくなったよう」 "madman": Ibid., p. 49.
44［70］ファンク自身の説明 Fanck's recollection: Fanck memoir, translated by Leopold Zahn, pp. 153-54.
44［71］「性的執着」 "sexual obsession": Horak, "Traume," p. 45.
44［71］ファンクのインタビュー Fanck interview: Int. PW/AF, July 23, 1971, tape 9, transcript 9, p. 1.
44［71］「こんなダンサーが」 "What if ": Fanck memoir, p. 153.
44［71］「それからトレンカーが」 "Then Trenker came": Int. PW/AF, July 23, 1971, tape 9, transcript 9, p. 2.
44［71］「愛情のもつれ」 "love things": Int. PW/LR, August 7, 1971, tape 15, transcript 2, p. 15.
45［72］脚の骨を bones in her foot: Neue Rhein-Zeitung (Dusseldorf), March 17, 1960. In another version, it was a broken ankle. See LRM, pp. 49-50. In LR, Kampf(p. 17), it is two bones.
45［72］山小屋で寝泊り Leni in the cabin: See LRM, pp. 52-53ff.
45［72］ファンクの回想 Fanck's version: Fanck memoir, p. 154.
45［74］ゾカルの意見 Sokal's version: Int. PW/HS, tape 12, transcript 12, pp. 6ff.
45［74］「製作はウーファにまかせた」 "Ufa to take the whole picture": Ibid., p. 6. Two years later, Sokal told Glenn Infield a slightly different version. There he says: "She had told me herself one night when she left Trenker, who made her unhappy and crying, and was seeking consolation in the arms of Schneeberger" (Infield, pp. 163-64). In this account, Sokal suggests that LR's affair with Fanck continued at the same time. "The reason for my anxiety was threefold: three lovers!" (ibid., p. 163).
45［74］自分で監督する Leni directing: LR, Kampf, p. 24.
46［74］ファンクはこんな電報を cable from Fanck: LRM, p. 55.
46［74］「とてもきれいだった」 "very nice pictures": Fanck memoir, p. 160.
46［76］アメリカ America: The picture was distributed in the United States in 1928 by Paramount, which retitled it Peaks of Destiny, inadvertently creating confusion with Fanck's earlier Mountain of Destiny.
46［76］ウィーンの批評 Vienna review: Quoted in Trimborn, p. 74, though misdated September 24, 1926, three months before the film was actually released.
46［76］ベルリンの『モルゲンポスト』 Berlin Morgenpost: Quoted in Trimborn, p. 74.
46［76］批評家の言葉 the reviewer who had earlier written: This was John Schikowski, cited in Rother (German), p. 203.
46［76］『ニューヨーク・タイムズ』 New York Times: Mordaunt Hall, November 29, 1927, p. 31.
４ 燃える野望 CHAPTER FOUR: HIGHER
47［削除］ "so near": LR, Kampf, p. 37.
47［77］トレンカー Trenker: Meine Berge, p. 9.
47［77］「この映画は傑作だ」 "The film is a masterpiece": Siegfried Kracauer, Frankfurter Zeitung, March 4, 1927, quoted in Rentschler, Ministry, p. 313.
47［77］「少数の若者グループが」 "there is an outpouring": Der Montag Morgan, December 20, 1926.
47［77］「押し付けがましいプロパガンダ」 "obtrusive propaganda": Alex Eggebrecht, Die Weltbuhne, January 11, 1927.
47［78］太字の批評 review in caps: Westfallischen Volkszeitung, January 10, 1927, quoted in Horak, p. 33.
48［79］「ファンクはすべてを同じように」 "He taught me": LRM, p. 51.
48［79］「原稿の段階から」 "already dedicated to me": LR, Kampf, p. 26, where she tells herself it is "your film."
48［78］『フィルム・クリーア』 Film-Kurier: Film-Kurier, June 24, 1926.
49［79］シュナイダーとの情事 Schneider as lover: Fromm, Blood and Banquets, p. 130; bitter regret: Salkeld, p. 35. See also Walker.
49［80］ディズニー Disney: LRMG, pp. 92-93.
49［81］「国家の大義」 "national cause": Kreimeier, p. 159.
50［81］「ヒューゲンベルクの批判者」 Hugenberg's critics: Erich Schairer, quoted in Kaes, Jay, and Dimendberg, p. 72.
50［82］ファンクの釈明 Fanck justified: Fanck, Erfuhrte, p. 167.
50［83］「幼くて」 "he was a child": Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 6.
50［83］「彼は指図されるのが好きだった」 "He liked being led": LRM, p. 63.
51［83］「辛い仕事」 "terrible grind": Ibid., p. 62.
51［83］「晴れ晴れとした気分」 "a marvelous feeling": Ibid.; also LR, Kampf, p. 37, for "stars."
51［84］落胆したレニ Depressed: LRMG, p. 103.
51［84］「このオリンピックの序章こそ」 "Prelude to the Olympics": Ibid. Compare to LR, Kampf, pp. 40-41.
51［84］「美しい人びとが大勢」 "beautiful people": LR, Kampf, p. 40.
52［85］「灰色の地獄」 "gray hell": Ibid., p. 42.
52［85］シュピロ Spiro: LRMG (p. 56) dates the portrait 1924 and ties it to her dance career. Other sources date it 1925, when LR was already acting. It would subsequently illustrate the dust jacket of the first German edition of LRMG.
52［85］ウィーンでそそくさと撮影した filmed quickly in Vienna: LR told PW that the film was made while Fanck was in St. Moritz shooting the Winter Olympics, but that is clearly an error. The likely shooting date is January 1928. Int. SB/PW, 2001.
52［86］フィルムは散逸して film is lost: There is, at the Film-Archiv in Vienna, a recent reconstruction of what remains of the film's Italian version. Fragments without LR exist in Berlin at the Bundesfilmarchiv.
52［86］ゾカルのような親しい者でさえ Sokal unaware: Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 13, transcript p. 20.
52［86］ようやく渋々ながら admitted only reluctantly: Peggy Wallace, interviewing LR in 1971, found her resistant to discussing the film at all.
53［86］フロム Fromm: Fromm, Blood and Banquets, p. 130. Fromm misnames Sokal "Franz" and misspells his last name as "Sokall." Her book was written in American exile in the early 1940s. For her work as diplomatic correspondent of the Vossische Zeitung, see Gilbert, p. 833.
53［86］ベティ・スターン Betty Stern: LRM, p. 66. For Stern, also see Bach, Marlene Dietrich: Life and Legend.
53［87］「悲恋物語」 "a love story": LRM, p. 63.
53［88］22歳まで twenty three: Ibid., pp 152-53. She was more open about her ignorance in int. PW/LR, August 11, 1971, tape 17, side B, transcript 4, p. 7, where she says, "I didn't know exactly who this was" when the character was first mentioned to her. She had never heard of the play either "So by this time I was curious to read the story. And then after I read it I was really fascinated."
53［88］ペンテジレーア Penthesilea: The work was a Reinhardt staple. Marlene Dietrich appeared in a minor role in the Reinhardt production at the Deutsches Theater in 1923 (Bach, Marlene Dietrich, p. 52).
54［89］「一晩で」 "a single night": LR, Kampf, p. 42. In LR's memoirs, this is altered to read, "He wrote day and night" (LRM, p. 67).
54［89］「六ページか八ページだった」 "It was six or eight": Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript pp. 7-8. Sokal later told a similar version of the story to Frederick Ott (see Ott, p. 96).
54［89］「笑いとばされた」 "they laughed": Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 8.
54［90］「これまでに出演料の」 "tried to take": LRM, p. 67.
55［90］「山のこと、そして喜劇やドラマや」 "a man who": Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 10.
56［93］ディースルとの共演が気に入らず LR on Gustav Diessl: Sokal to Ott, in Ott, p. 96.
56［93］助監督も assistant director: Mark Sorkin, "Six Talks on G. W. Pabst," Cinemontages 3 (New York: 1955).
57［94］「午前十時に劇場の前を」 "I passed the theater": Int. PW/HS, Augnst 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 8.
57［95］モーダント・ホール Mordaunt Hall: New York Times, September 27, 1930, p. 21.
57［95］『バラエティ』はレニに注目し Variety noticed: Variety, December 11, 1929. The reviewer ("Trask") misnamed both directors, calling Fanck "Frank" and Pabst "Papst."
57［95］「黒魔術」"black magic": LRM, p. 74.
57［95］「地獄の炎に焼かれるほどの苦悩」 "mental anguish": Ibid., pp. 74-75.
58［96］「毎晩、枕の下に」 "Every night": Ibid.,p. 71.
58［96］「やっと本格的な」 "At last": Ibid. pp. 72-73.
58 critical dismay: In addition to Kracauer, Caligari, see Herbert lhering in Dahlke and Karl, p. 263.
58［97］「空から天使が」 "it was as if": Trenker, Kameraden, p. 194.
59［97］トレンカーの「登山者の十戒」 Trenker's "Ten Commandments": In Meine Berge, p. 9. The first commandment goes in full: "Thou shalt undertake no ascent without being ready: thou must be superior to the mountain, not the mountain to thee. Thou shalt devote thyself to a goal suitable to thy abilities, but--if it must be--forsake the goal until the time is right. Thou shalt take thy time to reach thy maximum strengths, and not race the second hand of the stopwatch. Thou shalt not devour the peaks, but also not shrink from the manifold actions on the mountain climber's paths."
59［98］トレンカーが「最後まで」 Trenker "would go through": Int. PW/HS August 13, 1971, tape 13, transcript p. 10.
59［98］ゾカルは自分にこういいきかせた Sokal on the completed film: Ibid., transcript p. 15.
５ 売り込み作戦 CHAPTER FIVE: ABOVE THE CLOUDS
60［99］バラージュ Balazs: Balazs, "Der Fall Dr. Fanck," p. vii.
60［100］ウーファ、ＭＧＭ、パラマウント Ufa, MGM, and Paramount: This connection was formalized as Parufamet and involved reciprocal distribution arrangements in America and Germany for all three companies. The American firms took shrewd advantage of Ufa's financial straits after Metropolis to profit at Ufa's expense. See Kreimeier, among others.
61［100］「文明生活は私には向かないわ」 "I do not like civilization": Ott, p. 124.
61［101］ルイーズ・ブルックスは迷惑そうに Louise Brooks complained: Paris, pp. 321-22. The remarks are in letters to Brownlow from the 1960s.
61［101］「ぺちゃくちゃしゃべったり、笑ったり」 "gabbing and laughing": Ibid., p. 323.
61［101］女性監督 Female directors: There were exceptions, such as actress-producer Ellen Richter in Berlin, but the most famous European woman director from this period was Leontine Sagan, whose Madchen in Uniform was released in 1931 to international success. Sagan was Viennese, raised in South Africa, to which she returned in the late 1930s. In America, there was Lois Smith, among the very few.
62［102］フレデルスドルフ Fredersdorfi Int. PW/AF, July 23, 1971, tape 9, transcrrpt p. 7.
62［102］「ファンクはけっして許してくれなかった」 "Fanck never forgave me": LRM, p. 79.
62［102］ゾカルは感心した Sokal on Leni's relationships: Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 5.
62［103］エネルギー sexual energy: Documentarian Tony Palmer met with her in the 1990s and found that the sexual aura she gave off was palpable (int. SB/Tony Palmer, January 25, 2006).
63［104］「デューラーの木版画」のようだ Rist as "woodcut": Dr. Walter Bing, in Horak, p. 218.
63［104］レニは自分がファンクに Leni insisted: LRMG, p. 126. On Allgeier and LR, see Paris, p. 323.
63［106］「ドラマ作りの助っ人」 "dramaturgical collaborator": In the book about the film--though not onscreen--Fanck credits Mayer, misspelling his name "Karl Maier" (Sturme uber dem Montblanc, p. xv).
63［106］「自然を描いた傑作映画」 "greatest film portrayer": Balazs, "Der Fall Dr. Fanck," p. v.
63［106］「ファンク博士は氷河や」 "Dr. Fanck directs": Ibid., p. vii.
64［106］『死の銀嶺』をしのぐほどだった outgrossed even Piz Palu: Storm took in 2.3 million reichsmarks, compared to the earlier film's 2.2 million (Horak, pp. 39, 42).
64［107］登山専門誌 Alpine publication: Der Bergsteiger, published by the German-Austrian Alpine Association. The writer was Dr. Walter Bing. Cited in Horak, pp. 214-19.
64［107］ジークフリート・クラカウアーにとって to alarm Siegfried Kracauer: Kracauer, Caligari, pp. 257-58.
64［107］「山にとり憑かれている」 "mountain-possessed": Ibid., p. 258.
64［107］『ニューヨーク・タイムズ』の批評家 reviewer from the Times: New York Times, B.W.N., March 26, 1932, p. 17.
64［108］一九二〇年代初めからトーキー映画は sound in Berlin in the early 1920s: The process referred to here is sound-on-film, or optical sound, as opposed to sound-on-disk, which was less reliable and fiexible. The first public exhibition of sound-on-film occurred in Sweden in 1921, though experiments had been under way in Europe at least since 1910 or even earlier.
65［109］悪い冗談 bitter joke: Fest, Hitler, p. 314.
65［109］イアン・カーショー Ian Kershaw: Hubris, pp. 406-7.
67［111］ハンス・フェルト re Hans Feld: Int. SB/Hans Feld, May 25, 1990. Re Karl Vollmoeller: Riess, in Das gab's nur einmal, vol. 2, p. 112. Vollmoeller knew Josef von Sternberg from America and was engaged by Pommer to work on the screenplay for The Blue Angel with Carl Zuckmayer and Robert Liebmann. Authorship of that script has long been debated, though Vollmoeller probably worked on structuring it, rather than writing scenes or dialogue, and his main contribution may have been the prestige of his name.
67［111］「哀れな片思い」 "unfortunately one sided": LRM, p. 77.
67［112］「ドゥドゥ」 "Du-Du": Ibid.
67［112］ディートリッヒとレニ Dietrich and Riefenstahl: A number of contemporary writers have paired the two in studies of stardom or in imaginary confrontations, as in Thea Dorn's Marleni, a witty radio play in German. In life, they had almost no direct contact, in spite of a famous photograph by Alfred Eisenstaedt of the two of them with Anna May Wong, who was something of a cult figure in Berlin, at the Berlin Press Ball of 1929 (not 1928, as is usually recorded). Riefenstahl clearly saw herself as Dietrich's rival, if only in the competition for most famous German woman of the twentieth century.
67［113］「スタンバーグは毎晩のように」 "Sternberg visited me" and "before Pommer": LRM, p. 77.
68［113］「私の作品を崇拝するだけの才能はあった」 "talented admirer": Sternberg's student was the author.
６ 女性映画監督誕生 CHAPTER SIX: THE BLUE LIGHT
69［115］「欲しいものを」 "I used everything": LR quoted by Sokal, int. PW/HS Munich, August 13, 1971, tape 13, transcript p. 13.
69［115］「監督ができるなんて」 "it hadn't even": LRM, p. 90.
69［115］「私は映画監督の目で」 "I see everything": LR, Kampf, p. 67. This passage from 1933 is repeated with significant variation in the 1987 memoirs, in which Riefenstahl precedes the parallel text with the words "Almost agamst my will," although the earlier version makes clear that her determination was firm (LRM, p. 89).
69［116］「私には文才がない」 "I am not gifted": Int. PW/LR August 11, 1971, tape 17, side B, transcript 4, p. 4.
70［119］ファンクはこの小説の存在を Fanck knew the novel: Fanck had introduced LR to Renker's novels when they were making The Holy Mountain, which was titled after an earlier Renker work called Heilige Bergen (Holy Mountains). For The Blue Light, Fanck stated she "took the story idea from one of the books of Renker" (Zsuffa, p. 454). He supplied Peggy Wallace a copy of the original Renker in 1973 to prove his point.
71［119］レンケルの小説 Renker's story: Bergkristall, p. 43.
71 ［119］「すべて私の頭のなかから」"everything... came from my head": Wallace, p. 285.
71［119］「私はくりかえし夢を」 "I began to dream": LRM, p. 89.
71［119］自分を同化させた存在 LR as Junta: This is a central theme of LR's at least since her 1965 interview in Cahiers du Cinema with Michael Delahaye, reprinted in Sarris, Interviews.
71［120］「女たらし」 "ladies man": Zsuffa, p. 204.
71［120］「バラージュとて」 "Balazs was not immune": Ibid.
71［120］「最高の協力者です」 "I find in Bela": LR, Kampf, p. 69.
72［120］カール・マイヤーも協力して with the aid of Carl Mayer: Mayer also worked on the editing of the picture (Zsuffa, pp. 215, 219).
72［121］どたばたコメディ slapstick comedy team: They were inspired by the Gebruder Wolf, a Jewish brother team from Hamburg who enjoyed wide vaudeville popularity in the early years of the century.
72［121］「退屈すぎる」 "too boring": LRM, p. 89.
72［121］「片っ端から会社をまわり」 "I showed my Blue Light": Int. PW/LR August 11, 1971, tape 17, side B, transcript p. 8.
72［122］「映画を作りたかった」 "I wanted to make": Quoted in Rentschler, Ministry, p. 32.
72［122］「完全に私だけのもの」 "entirely my own": LR, Kampf, p. 15.
73［122］新しいクレジット credit revision: A postwar release of the film in 1952 carried the still-misleading credit "a mountain legend by Leni Riefenstahl." The presently available restoration (with which LR was not involved) reinstated the original credits for television showings on Arte.
73［123］「映画のシナリオ界における」 Wilder quote: Zsuffa, p. 209.
74［124］赤外線フィルムとバラージュ Balazs and infrared film: Loewy, p. 13, citing Ralmon, p. 18. The point about the Agfa film stock was of some importance to LR, who gave the impression that its designation as "R" was tribute to her, though Agfa confirms the stock preexisted The Blue Light. See LRM, p. 92.
74［124］「テクニックのない映画など」 "Film without": LR, Kampf, p. 15.
74［124］画家ヴィリー・イェッケル the artist who: LRMG, pp. 48, 142. He is identified only in the German version.
75［126］「――を救済すること」 "redemption": Undated (circa 1932), unsourced clipping, German Film Institute, Riefenstahl file.
75［126］「ずたずたにした」 "mutilation": LRM, p. 99. For more positive versions, see especially Frederick Ott, p. 126, where he speaks of Fanck's "characteristic generosity" and LR's "happiness."
75［126］ファンクの言い分は Fanck on rushes and editing: Int. PW/AF, July 23, 1971, tape 9, transcript pp. 5-7.
76［127］レニの話はもっとドラマチック Leni told a more dramatic tale: Int. PW/LR, Augast 8, 1971, tape 16, transcript 16a (unauthorized by LR), pp. 14-15. LR refused to authorize a transcript of this tape about Fanck because he was still living and she felt her comments were "too personal." She also forbade quotation of her comments to him. Int. PW/SB, 2002.
76［128］先にファンクの話を聞いたインタビュアー Fanck and interviewers: Peggy Wallace was subjected to a tirade from LR in 1971 when it was revealed that she had spoken with Fanck (PW tape 16, transcript 16a, pp. 10-23).
76［128］「ひどかった」 "shattering," "boring," and following citations: Letter, LR to Bela Balazs, February 21, 1932. Cited from Balazs papers as MTA, Ms 5021/320, in Loewy, pp. 15-16.
76［129］「私はファンクから編集を」 "I learned cutting": Int. PW/LR, Augnst 6, 1971, tape 14, side A, transcript 14, p. 19.
77［129］「思っても見なかった大成功」 "an undreamt-of-success": LRM, p. 99.
77［129］「ベルリンの批評家たちは」 "Berlin critics outdid": Ibid.
77［129］ゾカルはこう回想する Sokal on Jewish critics: Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 13, transcript 13, pp. 3-4. Sokal went on record in this regard several times with minor variations, most publicly in a letter in Der Spiegel that ran under the title "Uber Nacht Antisemitin geworden?" ("Overnight an Anti-Semite?"). He wrote substantially the same account to LR biographer Glenn Infield on October 20, 1975 (Infield, p. 229). LR challenged his Spiegel letter with a letter of her own in the issue of November 15, 1976, as "Nie Antisemitin gewesen" ("Never an Anti-Semite").
77［130］「精神的に病んでいる」 "inwardly sick": Hermann Sinsheimer, "Zwei Legenden," Berliner Tageblatt , March 26, 1932. That her parents read the Tageblatt: Sereny, German Trauma, p. 239, where LR added in referring to the paper that it was "owned by a Jew until 1933.
77［130］『フィルム・クリーア』 Film-Kurier: March 26, 1932.
77［130］ルドルフ・アルンハイム Rudolf Arnheim: Trimborn, pp. 363-64. The quotation is from a conversation with Arnheim conducted in Ann Arbor, Mich., October 10, 1999, by German journalist Tita Gaehme, for broadcast on German radio on January 1, 2000, under the title "I Always Trusted Reality: About Rudolf Arnheim."
78［130］プレスリリーフでは 1938 press releases: Quoted from press material prepared by Tobis, the distributor in 1938.
78［130］パウル・イーキス Paul Ickes: LR, Kampf, p. 6. Ickes wrote film reviews for Deutsche Filmwoche.
78［131］ニューヨークで封切られたとき New York reviews: Sun, May 9, 1934; Herald Tribune, May 9, 1934.
78［131］クレジットから suggesting that credits: Both reviews suggest that a revision of credits had already taken place by 1934, more than a year after the Nazi seizure of power.
78［132］『ニューヨーク・タイムズ』は The Times: New York Times, H.T.S. [Harry T. Smith], May 9, 1934, p. 23.
78［132］「願いは一つだけ」 "only one wish": Letter to Bela Balazs, February 21, 1932, as cited above.
79［132］ゾカルはナチ政権下のドイツから Sokal and exile: LR's memoirs deny that she and Sokal had an intimate relationship, and she trivializes his role in her career and life. She was writing, it should be noted, after Sokal's cooperation with Glenn Infield on the latter's hostile LR biography, after the Der Spiegel letter noted above, and after his death precluded rebuttal or litigation.
Her text is openly hostile. She barely acknowledges that he had to leave Germany because of Nazi racial policies and never mentions removal of his name from the credits of The Blue Light. She resents his having been able to transfer money from Germany to Switzerland when he went into exile and accuses him of gambling away "my fifty-percent share of the foreign receipts for my film" (LRM, p. 368). The charge is impossible to verify one way or the other, but it is likely that 50 percent of nothing was nothing. In any case, receipts would have gone first to repay distribution expenses, then outstanding production costs, which Sokal had borne or arranged for.
LR's verslon of Sokal's exile is inaccurate. She claims he left Germany for France and then America. In fact, he left Germany for England, where he produced a picture called Dusty Ermine in 1936. He then resettled in France, producing Le Grand Elan, before emigrating to America in 1941. There he was under contract to Monogram Pictures and associated with the Paul Kohner office after the war. He returned to Germany in 1950.
LR's charge that Sokal lied to her in claiming that the negative had been burned in Prague is impossible to verify Such a claim could have been made as an evasive action to prevent discovery that it had been sold in America to Rony (see text).
LR further claims that Sokal, as the original producer, demanded a share of the proceeds from the 1952 revision of the picture. It is worth noting that at no time does LR ever refer to his sharing in or entitlement to proceeds from the 1938 rerelease.
79［132］バラージュはソ連で Balazs had accepted: Zsuffa, pp. 229-30, 462-63.
79［133］レニが走り書きした文章 LR to Streicher: The letter is in the Riefenstahl file of the BDC.
79［133］後年、レニは Leni was later to cite Balazs: LR claimed in Five Lives (p. 305) that she remained friendly ("Freundschaftlich verbunden") with Balazs until his death in 1949, though there is no evidence for such a claim. Balazs's biographer writes, "She never tried to make amends for having failed to compensate 'the Jew Bela Balazs' for his labors on her film" (Zsuffa, p. 363).
80［134］ジョージ・ロニー George Rony: Here and hereafter: Int. PW/George Rony, February 2, 1971, interview 26. His reference to "an agent" is not clear. This may have been Sokal or possibly someone connected with Paul Kohner or his agency.
80［134］レニの言い分によれば LR on Rony: LRM, pp. 367-68. LR says Kevin Brownlow told her about Rony.
80［135］ハインツ・フォン・ヤフォルスキー Jaworsky on LR and Mein Kampf: Int. PW/HVJ, September 10, 1972, tape 30, transcript p. 7.
80［135］ゾカルによれば Sokal on Mein Kampf: Int. PW/HS, August 13, 1971, tape 13, transcript p. 2.
81［136］「彼らのために働く」 "I'll work for them": Int. PW/HVJ, September 19, 1972, tape 30, transcript p. 7.
第二部 栄達 PART TWO: ASCENT
83［削除］ Hitler: Quoted in Fest, Face, p. 147.
83［削除］ Streicher: Letter from Streicher to LR, July 27, 1937, Riefenstahl file) BDC. The letter is written in the familiar second-person form, Du.
７ ヒトラーとの対面CHAPTER SEVEN: LIGHTNING
85［138］「われわれが政権に」 "Once we come": LRM, p. 106.
85［削除］ "All I thought about": Sereny, German Trauma, p. 239.
85［138］得票数 voting statistics: As comparison, the steadily weakening Social Democrats attracted 21.6 percent of the vote, and the German Communist Party lagged with a mere 14.5 percent in the same election. The Social Democrats had gone steadily downward from 29.8 percent of the vote in 1928. The Communists were growing, but incrementally: Their l0.6 percent of the 1928 vote rose to 14.5 in July 1932 and peaked at 16.9 in November of the same year, an election that saw a falloff of the Nazis' vote from the high of 37.4 percent to 33.1 percent.
85［138］「とても忙しくて」 "All I thought about": Sereny, German Trauma, p. 239.
85［139］ラジオを聞いたことがなかった never heard radio: She made the claim to Sereny. Ibid. For 1932, see Chapter 6 and Rudolf Arnheim.
86［139］「土砂降りの雨のなかにいて」 "did not know enough": West, Train of Powder, p. 34.
86［139］『わが闘争』を読んだから stimulated by Mein Kampf: LR admitted owning the book at a later date but sidestepped the issue of her first exposure to it, implying that all she knew of Hitler before hearing him speak was what she was told by strangers. See LRM, pp. 100-101.
86［139］「汽車のなかや」 "I read it on the tram": John Beevers, "The Girl Hitler Likes," Sunday Referee (London), December 4, 1938.
86［139］ドイツのある歴史学者 German historian: Fest, Face, p. 71.
86［140］「ユダヤ系新聞がでっちあげた」 "to destroy the foul legends": Mein Kampf, unpaginated p. vii.
86［140］「『右』と『左』という言葉」 "I was so":LRM, p. 100.
86［140］ファンクはレニの起用に Fanck adamantly opposed to LR: Fanck, Er fuhrte, pp. 253-54.
86［140］ 「ユニバーサルは」LR on Universal: LRM, p. 102; the actual fee: Fanck, Erfuhrte, pp. 253-54.
87［141］クレジットから抹消された Kohner's name removed: Int. SB/Gero Gandert, SDK, August 8, 2003. Kohner discovered that his name was removed on the night of the premiere, August 30, 1933. In some accounts, he had a nervous breakdown because of LR's Hitler salute from the stage. See Horak, p. 49. Gandert of the SDK doubts the nervous breakdown but confirms that Kohner was outraged by LR's salute.
Kohner's tryst with LR: Andrew "Bandy" Marton was directing another picture for Kohner and Universal, a comedy called North Pole, Ahoy! and was the editor on the English-language version of S. O.S. Iceberg. Marton became a longtime Kohner client. Int. PW/Andrew Marton, December 14, 1970, tape 29, transcript p. 2.
87［141］「ベルリンにレニが」 "Leni came to me": Fanck, Er fuhrte, p. 254.
87［142］「間違いなく」 "without a doubt": LRM, p. 113.
87［142］「あの尻軽女の」 "Don't let that little tramp": Knopp, p. 102, though Knopp misattributes the remark to Ertl, who was quoting Riml.
88［142］「アメリカで成功を」 "might help": LRM, p. 103.
88［143］ロンドンで録音 dubbed in London: Garnett, p. 152.
88［144］アルフレッド・ヴェーゲナー Alfred Wegener: Wegener died in 1930; his remains were discovered the following year. Two members of his expedition served as consultants on S. O.S. Iceberg.
89［144］ヒトラーの集会 Hitler rally: Hitler spoke at only one rally in Berlin in late February, which was LR's dating of the event. Hitler's citizenship is a matter of public record on February 26, 1932.
89［144］エルンスト・イェーガー Ernst Jager: LR makes this claim in the Ray Muller film Wonderful, Horrible Llfe.
89［145］「稲妻に撃たれたよう」 "It was like": Sereny, German Trauma, p. 240.
89［145］「黙示録を思わせる」 "I had an almost": LRM, p. 101.
89［145］ヨアヒム・フェスト Joachim Fest: Fest, Hitler, p. 324.
89［145］ニーチェの妹とアメリカ人ジャーナリスト Nietzsche's sister and American journalist: Ibid., pp. 327-28; Fest is quoting Kessler's diary entry of August 7, 1932. The American, Fest notes, was H. N. Knickerbocker.
89［146］エルンスト・〈プッツィ〉・ハンフシュテングル Ernst "Putzi" Hanfstaengl: Hanfstaengl, p. 34. "Putzi" Hanfstaengl (Harvard 1909) was half American. His mother was a Sedgwick from New England, and he was descended from two American Civil War generals. His Munich family was prominent in art publishing in Europe and New York, where Hanfstaengl sat out World War I as an enemy alien forbidden to leave the United States. It was his American dollars during the postwar inflation that enabled the then-obscure Nazi Party to buy its own newspaper, theVolkischer Beobachter. Hanfstaengl was important in attracting other socially prominent supporters in the early 1920s. He escaped from his former Nazi cohort to England and finally to America during World War II, where he furnished American intelligence with insights into Hitler's psychology.
90［146］「彼の体から」 "Sometimes he reminded me": Ibid., pp. 35-36.
90［146］ハフナーの引用 Haffner quotes: Haffner, Defying Hitlerrr, pp. 71-72. Though Haffner's memorr was not published until after his death, it was written in the midthirties.
90［146］シャイラーがいうように Shirer: Twentieth Century Journey, p. 127.
90［147］「深く感動」するあまり "deeply affected" and "hail a cab": LRM, p. 101.
90［147］「民族差別的な」 "unreservedly": Ibid. p. 102.
90［147］手紙を出した letter to Hitler: LR's memoir contains what she asserts is a remembered version of the letter on p. 103. It reads:
"Dear Herr Hitler,
"Recently I attended a political rally for the first time in my life. You were giving a speech at the Sportpalast and I must confess that I was so impressed by you and by the enthusiasm of the spectators that I would like to meet you personally Unfortunately, I have to leave Germany in the next few days in order to make a film in Greenland so a meeting with you prior to my departure will scarcely be possible; nor indeed do I know whether this letter will ever reach you. I would be very glad to receive an answer from you.
"Cordially, Leni Riefenstahl"
91［147］「好奇心のほうが勝った」 "my curiosity": LRM, p. 105.
91 ［148］「これまで観た映画のなかで」"The most beautiful": Ibid.
91［148］「これは偶然？」 "Was this chance": Ibid.
91［148］レニが見たヒトラー LR on AH: Ibid., p. 106.
91［148］「われわれが政権の座についたら」 "Once we come": Ibid.
91［148］「人から指図されて」「映画のテーマは」 "prescribed films" and "I have to have": Ibid.
91［148］「民族差別の偏見を」 "racial prejudices": Ibid.
91［149］レニの体に腕をまわした Hitler's advance: Ibid., p. 107.
92［149］ハンフシュテングルの引用 Hanfstaengl quotes: Hanfstaengl, p. 203. Re Hitler's impotence and possible homosexuality: Hanfstaengl, pp. 22-23.
92［150］ヴァルター・フレンツの引用 Walter Frentz quote: Int. PW/Walter Frentz, August 3, 1971, tape 11, transcript pp. 26-27.
92［150］フェストのいう what Fest calls: Hitler, p. 254.
92［150］「彼が望んだら」 "I suppose": The friend was Gitta Sereny. German Trauma, p. 243.
92［151］「誰にも話さなかった」 "I told no one": LRM, p. 107.
92［151］「ナチの専用機」 "private airplane": Int. PW/Andrew Marton, tape 29, transcript p. 5. The detail of the bouquet of flowers is from Salkeld, p. 80.
93［151］『わが闘争』の本 copy of Mein Kampf: Sorge, p. 203.
93［151］「ヒトラーの大きな写真」 "photographs of Hitler": Marton, as above, transcript pp. 5-6.
93［151］ハンス・エルトゥルと with Hans Ertl: Ertl, quoted in Salkeld, p. 86.
93［152］ヒトラーの選挙運動 Hitler's air campaign: Kershaw, Hubris, p. 363.
93［152］選挙キャンペーンとしては campaign technology: Fest, Hitler, p. 318.
93［152］「近いうちに」 "We must": Kershaw, Hubris, p. 364.
93［152］「われわれの戦いの基盤には」 "The basis of ": Quoted by Fest, Hitler, p. 319.
94［152］「私がナチ党を作ったのは」 "I did not": Ibid., pp. 342-43.
94［153］「問題は」 "The question": Kershaw, Hubris, p. 381.
94［153］「私はみずからの道を選び」 "I've chosen my path": Ibid., p. 389.
95［154］「弱い人間だけが」 "Only the weak": LRM, p. 127.
95［155］カイザーホーフでのヒトラー Hitler scene in the Kaiserhof: Ibid., pp. 128-29.
95［155］セレニー Sereny: German Trauma, p. 242.
95［155］歴史の記録によれば historical records: Kershaw, Hubris, p. 401.
95 ［155］ゲッベルスの後年の回想Goebbels re suicide: Quoted in Shirer, Rise and Fall, p. 177.
96［156］シュトラッサーはといえばGoebbels on Strasser: Ibid.
96［156］「私はひとこともしゃべらず」 "Without having uttered": LRM, p. 129.
96［157］「特別な魅力」 "his special charm": Ibid., p. 133.
96［157］「嵐のような愛ではなく」 "not a tempestuous love": Ibid., p. 152.
96［157］「不思議なことに」 "oddly enough": Ibid.
97［158］エルトゥルの回想によれば Ertl phone call anecdote: "Ich, Hans Ertl," German television, 1992.
８ ターニング・ポイント CHAPTER EIGHT: THE TURNING POINT
98［削除］ Haffner: Defying Hitlerr, p. 144.
98［159］ゲッベルス Goebbels: Diaries, June 12, 1933.
98［159］「めぐり合わせ、軽薄さ」 "chance, frivolity": Fest, Hitler, p. 367.
98［160］エーリヒ・ルーデンドルフ Erich Ludendorff: Quoted in Kershaw, Hubris, p. 427.
99［160］ゲッベルスは一月三十一日の日記に書いた Goebbels told his diary: Diary entry for January 31, 1933, quoted in Kershaw, Hubris, p. 423.
99［160］「国粋主義的な」「ナチ陣営への」 "mass desertion" and "fog": Fest, Hitler, pp. 373, 391.
99 "to preserve": Ibid.,p. 391.
99［161］「天が与えた合図」 "God-given signal": Quoted in Kershaw, Hubris, p. 458.
99［161］緊急命令 an emergency decree: Fest cites this decree as "the decisive legal basis for Nazi rule and undoubtedly the most important law ever laid down in the Third Reich" (Fest, Hitler, p. 398).
100［162］死者が出たという violence claimed the lives: Shirer, Rise and Fall, p. 190.
100［163］「大勝利」 "glorious triumph": Quoted in Kershaw, Hubris, p. 461.
101［163］ダッハウの地元紙は Dachau headlines: Gellately, p. 52.
101［163］ダッハウ収容所 Dachau restrictions: Werner Meyer, "KZ Dachau--davon hat jeder gewusst," Abend-Zeitung (Munich), January 31, 2003, p. 10. The Dachau KZ (concentration camp) is today an official historic site, whose exhibits attest to public awareness of the camp's establishment. For contemporary news stories, see Meyer, above, and Stackelberg and Winkle, p. 145. See also Distel and Jakusch, and Ryback, "Report from Dachau."
101［163］シュトライヒャーの反ユダヤ主義 Streicher's boycott: In Stackelberg and Winkle, pp. 143-44.
101［164］「ドイツの評判を」 "an imposing": Quoted in Gilbert, p. 35.
101［164］イアン・カーショーによれば Ian Kershaw: Hubris, p. 475.
102［164］「両親はどんな政党にも」 LR on parents: Sereny, German Trauma, p. 239.
102［164］アルフレート・リーフェンシュタール Alfred Riefenstahl: Bundesarchiv: 3200/S0019 NSDAP-Mitgliedskartei (National Socialist Party Membership file).
102［165］カール・フォン・オシエツキー Carl von Ossietzky: Ossietzky had always been a troublesome journalist. He had first fallen afoul of the Nazis before Hitler took office by revealing the pre-Nazi program for rearmament, a violation of the Versailles Treaty.
102［166］「口汚い乱暴者」 "loudmouthed": Ossietzky, "Ein Wintermarchen," in Die Weltbuhne, January 1, 1933, p. 4.
103［166］「ヒトラーは夜陰に乗じて」 "Hitler did not come": Fest, Hitler, p. 374.
103［166］レニがベルリンに戻ったのは Leni returned to Berlin: LR often is vague about dates. In Five Lives (p. 307), she states she returned to Berlin in June knowing nothing of events such as the book burnings or Jewish boycott. In fact, by May 16, she already figured in Goebbels's diary in Berlin.
103［166］この企画をウーファに LR on Ufa: LRM, p. 136.
103［166］態度を保留したという Ufa's skittishness: Ufa minutes of September 5, 1933, reveal unreadiness to sign a contract with LR until "her artistic qualities have been subjected to careful scrutiny . . . undertaken in absolutely objective terms" (Rother [English], p. 190, n. 28). In any event, LR was already making her first Nazi Party rally film by the date these reservations were recorded.
103［167］ハンブルクで Hamburg: Book burnings occurred there on May 15 and, because the turnout was disappointingly small, were repeated on May 30.
103［167］ゲッベルスがレニの Goebbels spent much of the opera: Goebbels, Tagebucher, vol. 2, p. 421, May 17, 1933 (for May 16). LR's account of the visit to Madame Butterfly (specifically cited) is undated. JG's entry for May 16 reads, "Evening with Magda and L. Riefenstahl to Butterfy. Well sung and played. Afterwards, we chatted at the Traube." See LRM, pp. 167-68.
103［167］片方の脚が短く clubfoot: Reuth, p. 8.
104［168］「プチブル」 "petit bourgeois": Fest, Face, p. 139.
104［168］日記に recording in his diary: April 19, 1926.
104［168］反ユダヤを主義とするというより anti-Semitism of JG: Fest, Face, pp. 130-51.
104［168］「彼は天才だ」 "He is a genius": Quoted in Fest, Face, p. 140 (diary entry for July 24, 1926).
105［170］ゲッベルスとプロパガンダ Goebbels on propaganda: Quoted in ibid., pp. 142, 141.
105［170］ヒトラーの信念 Hitler on propaganda: Mein Kampf, p. 177.
105［171］アメリカの映画会社六社に対して Goebbels's order to film companies: New York Times, April 2, 1933, p. 1.
105［171］サルバーグとカウフマン Thalberg and Kauffmann: Gabler, pp. 338-42.
105［171］デヴィッド・ステュアート・ハル David Stewart Hull: Hull, p. 24. The moment eerily prefigures the studios and television networks preparing blacklists without being asked during the McCarthy period in the United States.
106［172］ウーファの世界的権威 Ufa figures: Mostly Kreimeier, p. 228.
106［172］公開本数 stages statistics: Beyer, p. 21. He refers in German to "studios," but the term is too grand for what were mostly small companies with stages for hire.
106［173］ゲッベルスは映画界の重鎮を Goebbels to Ufa: Beyer, p. 22, and Hull, p. 21.
106［173］ゲッベルスは一見穏やかな Goebbels at the Kaiserhof: Kreimeier, pp. 208-9; Beyer, p. 21; and Riess, Das gab's nur einmal, pp. 205-10.
106［173］ユダヤ人 Jewish artists: Some witnesses to Goebbels's speech, such as Friedrich Mainz, later head of Tobis Film, believed that Goebbels didn't know he was lauding Jews. See int. PW/Friedrich Mainz, July 29, 1971, tape 10, transcript pp. 13-14.
107［174］公務員法 civil service law: Quotations from Article 1, Article 3, and Article 4 of the "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service" ("Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums"), in Stackelberg and Winkle, pp. 150-51.
107［174］ピーター・ゲイ Peter Gay: Weimar Culture, p. xiv.
107［174］映画界の調整 Coordination of the film industry: On April 8, the New York Times reported that production had "almost completely ceased at all studios pending the passage of expected film laws" (cited in Hull, p. 20).
107［174］規制は六月三十日に June 30 rules: Hull, p. 26.
107［175］ゲッベルスは報復のために Goebbels retaliated against the Actors and Directors Association: Ibid., p. 22. The organization was known by its acronym DACHO, the umbrella trade union of filmmakers, Dach-Organisation der Filmschaffenden Deutschlands.
107［175］六月――七月との説もある――までは until June or July: See Die Zeit-Magazin, no. 36/1997, p. 13, where she claims, "In the first five months of the takeover of power I wasn't even in Germany, but shooting with the Americans on location in the Bernina Pass in Switzerland. We lived there in a mountain cabin, without television or even radio. I didn't experience the takeover at all and had no hint of the book burning. I came back to Germany only in July 1933."
It is worth noting that LR consistently uses the "Machtubernahme,"or "takeover of power," locution rather than "Machtergreifung," or "seizure of power."
108［175］「ヒトラーの映画」 "a Hitler film": JG diaries, May 17, 1933.
108 meetings with JG: The JG diaries for 1933 cite meetings on the following dates, generally in diary entries made the following day: May 16, May 25, June 11, June 12 or 13, June 15, June 20, July 4, July 9, July 14, July 17, July 18, August 13, August 15, Augnst 16 (pp. 421-58). The visit to Goebbels during his wife 's absence (see Chapter 9) was on Sunday, Augast 13 (p. 457). (Hereafter, dates without page numbers refer to the date of entry rather the date of meeting. It should be noted that the indexes of the Goebbels Tagebucher are imperfect and omit some dates listed here.)
108［175］「彼女の新作」 "her new film" and "She is": JG diaries, June 12, 1933.
108［175］「ヒトラーと話をして」 "spoken with Hitler" and "is now starting": JG diaries, June 14, 1933, for June 12 or 13.
108［176］「とても楽しかった」 "Very nice": JG diaries, June 16, 1933.
108［176］一九三〇年代には publication in the 1930s: See JG, My Part in Germany's Fight, published in January 1935 as a translation of Vom Kaiserhof zur Reichskanzlei, Eine historische Darstellung in Tagebuchblattern, vom 1 January 1932 bis zum 1 Mai 1933, published in Germany in 1934.
108［176］好意的な感想を suggested . . . tainted: See Gitta Sereny, who makes the point that their publication was a kind of "guarantee" in Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth, p. 133.
108［176］『死の銀嶺』を観てから JG and Piz Palu: J.G diaries, December 1, 1929.
109［177］「私、この私だけが」 "I, I alone": To Mrchel Delahaye in Cahiers du Cinema, here from Sarris, Interviews, p. 459.
109［177］「私の映画を」 "you must make": LRM, p.106.
９ 芸術監督として CHAPTER NINE: TOTAL DEVOTION
110［178］ヒトラーの言葉 Hitler epigraph: From Tischgesprache, dated July 26, 1942, quoted in Fest, Face. p. 498.
110［削除］ London review: Observer, December 3, 1933.
110「178」「最大の願望」 "most fervent wish": LRM, p. 136.
110［178］スタンバーグ Josef von Sternberg: Ibid., p. 131.
110［178］「選挙向けの」 "There is no greater": Ibid.
111［179］エーリヒ・ポマーに頼まれたから at the behest of Erich Pommer: Jacobsen, pp. 120-21. Pommer left for New York at the new year and did not return to Berlin until the Machtergreifung was complete and would stay only briefy.
111［179］スタンバーグがベルリンに来たのは He had traveled to Berlin: Bach, Marlene Dietrich, pp. 164-66. Also Sternberg, p. 229. LR attributes to Sternberg a degree of political awareness that he made a point of disclaiming.
111［180］「一文無しで」 "penniless": LRM p. 135.
111［180］住み込みのメイド a full-time maid: Ibid.,p. 129.
111［180］ヒトラーの住まいでの内輪の上映会 private screenings at Hitler's residence: JG diaries, July 14, 1933, for July 13. Location visit: JG diaries, July 9, 1933, for July 8, to Seckendorf and a film then titled Blut und Scholle, released as Thou Shalt Not Envy.
111［180］オペラや観劇 opera and theater: JG diarres, July 4, 1933, For "Auwi," JG diaries, July 8, 1933, for July 17. Altogether the Goebbels diary cites fourteen separate social occasions or professional meetings from May 16 through August 16.
111［180］五月末には late-May picnic excursion: JG diaries, May 26, 1933. Meetings with AH: LRM, p. 136. Mid-June at AH's private residence: JG was present as well. JG diaries, June 16, 1933.
112［181］七月にもバルト海まで another trip to the Baltic: LRM, p. 141; Viktoria von Dirksen: Fest, Hitler, p. 301.
112［181］「そんな手紙を見て」 "I wept": LRM, p. 135. Re Balazs: LR mentions letters from Balazs, but Zsuffa (p. 229) claims that Balazs wrote her in December 1933 to tell her he was suing.
112［181］ドイツ映画の製作 Hitler offers filmmaking post: LRM, p. 137. Horst Wessel: The film about him was released, withdrawn, recut, and finally reissued as Hans Westmar late in 1933. LR had nothing to do with it, though Ernst "Putzi" Hanfstaengl composed the music.
112［182］フィヒテ Fichte: Int. SB/Timothy Ryback, July-August 2002. LR's dedication to Hitler read, "Meinem lieben Fuhrer in tiefster Verehrung," The final word translates as "devotion" or "worship" in German and has a note of submission not conveyed by the approximate "admiration."
112［182］「下線を引いたり」 "a veritable blizzard": Ryback, "Hitler's Forgotten Library."
113［182］ナチ党大会の記録映画 Hitler re party rally film: LRM, pp. 143-44.
113［183］ヒトラーは激怒し……「それほどの栄誉」 Hitler's rant and "such an honor": Ibid., p. 143.
113［183］「ありきたりのニュース映画」 "ordinary newsreel footage": Ibid., p. 144.
113［183］レニはすでに党大会の撮影を終えていた Ufa's reservations voiced after Nuremberg: See notes to Chapter 8 re Ufa's decision.
113［184］「いま手がけている仕事」 "the tasks I have set": LR, "Wie der Film vom Reichsparteitag entsteht," Der Deutsche, no. 14, January 17, 1935, here quoted after Rother (English), p. 98. The reference is to Triumph of the Will.
114［184］新しくできた映画部門 film division established: Loiperdinger, "Sieg des Glaubens," p. 36.
114［185］七月も末になってから not reached until late July: Zelnhefer, p. 64. Stuttgart had been competing as a possible rally site, with Nuremberg dragging its municipal heels about the 1933 rally until Hitler delivered an ultimatum to city officials on July 22. The decision was announced on July 25. At issue was the financing of future rallies, which the city of Nuremberg was expected to underwrite.
114［185］ヒトラーは中世都市ニュルンベルクを Nuremberg as AH symbol city: Fest, Speer, p. 56.
114［185］「大衆には偶像が必要」 "The masses need": Fest, Face, p. 498.
115［186］「氷河の割れ目」 "glacial crevasse" nickname: This was ubiquitous. For one citation among many, see Zuckmayer, Geheimreport, pp. 93-94.
115［186］「あのびっこ」 "cripple": Sereny, Speer, p. 134.
115［186］ひざまずいて repelled by Goebbels's behavior: LRM, pp. 129-42; "his face" is on p. 142.
115［187］「私を嫌ったのは」 "hated me": Ibid., p. 146.
115［187］一九三六年のオリンピック 1936 Olympics: Int. PW/Friedrich Mainz, July 29, 1971, tape 10, transcript p. 9. Mainz was the eventual commercial distributor of the Olympics film(s).
115［187］洞察力のある知人 perceptive acquaintance: This was Gitta Sereny, in Speer, p. 134. Sereny refers to "her shame."
115［187］「ヒトラー映画」 "Hitler film": Loiperdinger, Moeller, and Rother never mention that the Nuremberg rally was not conclusively scheduled until late July and therefore speculate differently on the "Hitler film" issue. The July decision seems strongly to suggest that the rally film and the "Hitler film" were separate projects.
115［187］八月十三日日曜日 August dates LR and JG: JG diaries, pp. 457-59.
116［187］このときヒトラーは late-August itinerary for AH: JG diaries, August 1933 inclusive.
116［188］八月二十三日だった August 23: Loiperdinger, "Sieg des Glaubens," p. 37. The announcement was made by the film division of the propaganda administration--that is, Goebbels's office. An almost identically worded announcement also appeared two days later in Film Kurierll, August 25, 1933. The dating is significant, in that LR claimed that she was told of the commission only three days before the beginning of the rally-that is, on August 27 or 28 (LRM, p. 144).
116［188］三十ペニヒで cost of admission and number of participants: Zelnhefer, pp. 66, 153.
116［188］ヒトラーとゲッベルスは Hitler and Goebbels conferred: JG diaries, August 23-25, 1933, pp. 460-61. The diary entries make clear that no comprehensive planning for the rally had been done before late August.
116［189］「ピンで留められた」 "nailed to a truss": Sereny, Speer, p. 100.
117［189］「田舎の射撃大会」 "shooting match" : Ibid.
117［189］「巨大な、すばらしい旗」 "huge, marvelous": Ibid.; also Fest, Speer, pp. 32-33.
117［189］ヒトラーは「待ち受ける大衆のはるか上に」 Hitler "stood": Ibid., p. 32.
117［189］「大きいだけ」 "big, that's all": Sereny, Speer, p. 100.
117「190」スクリーン上のレニを Speer on LR: Int. PW/AS, tape 1, transcript p. 1.
117［190］「一目見たときから」 LR meets Speer: Sereny, Speer, p. 132.
117［190］「魅力にあふれ、じつに印象的」 She thought him: Ibid., p. 136.
117［190］「ヒトラーへの全き献身」 "total devotion": Ibid.
117［190］「屈辱」 "humiliation": LRM, p. 147.
117［190］「誰もわかってくれない」 "Nobody understands": Int. PW/AS, tape 1, transcript pp. 5-6. Speer is adamant on this point. "Goebbels was out."
118［191］この噂話の出所はウーファ gossip at Ufa: A letter dated August 28, 1933, reports that the Aryan wife of a Jewish screenwriter at Ufa named "Katscher" claimed to be LR's first cousin and that LR's mother was Jewish. Apparently no interview with Frau Katscher survives, but her husband was Leo Katscher, who emigrated from Germany and turned up in Hollywood in 1943 working for Samuel Goldwyn. He contributed to a number of screenplays in the 1950s, most notably The Eddie Duchin Story in 1956. See Horak, Fluchtpunkt Hollywood, p. 92. Riefenstahl file, BDC.
118［191］アルノルト・レーテル Arnold Raether and LR's racial descent: The report, dated September 6, 1933, is signed "v. Allwarden," who also wrote the letter referred to in the preceding note. A letter written by Raether on September 8, 1933, states, "I brought the matters . . . to Herr Hess's attention in Nuremberg. He decided to investigate the case [but] it has not been possible to discover anything detrimental to her regarding her descent." LR submitted a "Questionnaire" on October 4, 1933, where she merely filled in blanks with the word Arisch (Aryan). Riefenstahl file, BDC.
118［191］シュペーアはヘスに対して Speer on LR and Hess: Int. PW/AS, tape 1, transcript p. 5. LR's weeping is from this account. The investigation into LR's ancestry was still under way at the time of this interview, and if Speer was aware of it, he is mute on the subject. LR's version of the interrogation by Hess is in LRM, pp. 145-46, where she describes herself as "furious" and not, as Speer had it, weeping. It is highly unlikely that she knew an investrgation into her racial descent was being conducted at the time.
118［191］「内輪もめをする官僚たちのネットワーク」 "network of . . . bureaucracies": Speer, interview by Norden, p. 83.
119［192］「われを忘れて没頭する」「天才きどりではなく」「精励刻苦」 "totally involved," "genius," and "hard work": Int. PW/AS, tape 1, transcript pp. 10-11.
119［192］彼らの務めは「党を称揚し」 task was "to glorify": Ibid., transcript p. 6.
119［192］カメラ・チームに加えた cameramen added to the team: All of them would later work on Triumph of the Will. Frentz says he was interviewed and hired by LR at her apartment in Berlin, not Nuremberg (int. PW/Walter Frentz). If this is true, it would mean that LR was working on the film before her arrival in Nuremberg on August 27.
120［195］クレジットにもそう付記されている opening credits: They state: "All of the German newsreels made available their footage for this film." Though Victory of Faith was long thought lost, copies began to resurface in Germany and England in the 1980s, minus the opening credits and the opening Nuremberg sequence, though a complete copy was found in the 1990s in the former East Germany. In 2003, a small American company issued the full film, including credits and Allgeier's Nuremberg footage, on DVD. The author has relied on both the film version of the Munich Film Museum and the more complete (but photographically inferior) DVD version.
120［195］いくつかのシーンを撮影しなおした LR's reshooting: These staged scenes are obvious in the film, as are similar scenes in Triumph of the Will. Too-careful lighting and photographic effects not possible outside of a studio stand out even to the unpracticed eye.
120［195］この撮りなおしのことを書いている Speer's account in his memoir: See Speer, Inside the Third Reich, pp. 61-62. There are several memory failings in Speer's account, including LR's producing a newspaper clipping bearing his image, an event that Gitta Sereny dates to later in the decade.
120［196］一章を設けたほど entire chapter: "A Mistake in Speer's Memoirs," LRM, pp. 572-75. The "figment" reference appears on p. 574.
120［196］「数秒間」 "a sentence" from Streicher: Ibid., p. 575.
120［196］「民族の純潔を守らない」 "a people that": This is from shot 114 of Triumph of the Will, as in Smith, p. 27.
120［196］「熱心に耳を傾けている」 "she wanted to have": Int. PW/AS, as above, tape 1, transcript p. 13.
121［196］ヴァルター・フレンツ Walter Frentz confrmation: Int. PW/Walter Frentz Uberlingen, August 3, 1971, tape 11, transcript 11, p. 22.
121［197］ナチ党の傘下にあるメディアの批評 Reviews in the party-controlled press: Citations from Film-Kurier and Licht-Bild-Buhne, December 2, 1933, after Loiperdinger, "Sieg des Glaubens," p. 40.
121［197］『デア・アングリフ』 Angriff: After Rother, p. 53.
121［197］ロンドン『オブザーバー』 London review: Observer, December 3, 1933.
121［197］観客として予想されたのは intended audience: Twenty million is from Loiperdinger and Culbert, "Leni Riefenstahl, the SA," citing Curt Belling, p. 16.
121［198］ジェームズ・メイ James May: Telephone int. SB/James May, January 12, 2002; New York Times, "Leni Riefenstahl and Me, in 1934," January 9, 2002, letters. May believed it would have been impossible for LR to have been unaware of the propaganda uses to which her film was put.
122［198］「報われない仕事」 "thankless task" through "picture": LRM, p.150.
122［198］群衆に規律を守らせる Drscipline among the crowds: Zelnhefer, pp. 245-49.
10 ヒトラー映画の完成 CHAPTER TEN: TRIUMPH
123［削除］ "Whoever has seen": Goebbels, quated in Knopp, p. 11.
123［削除］ "It doesn't contain": Michel Delahaye's interview in Cahiers du Cinema, cited from Sarris, Interviews, p. 460.
123［200］「レニは命令されたわけではない」 "Leni Riefenstahl was not": Int. PW/Walter Traut, Munich-Harlaching August 10, 1971, tapes 5 and 6, citation from transcript 5, p. 17.
123［200］ヒトラーもそのことは承知していて Even Hitler took note: Dr. Koeppen, Hitlers Tischgesprach Herbst 1941, IfZ, Munich, Riefenstahl file Fa 514, November 7, 1941, p. 79082. LRM claims similar remarks by Hitler about overwork. See pp. 167 and 227.
123［200］魅力に抗えない defenselessness: See Lenssen, Leben und Werk, p. 30.
124［201］一九三四年4月十九日付の April 19, 1934: Rother (English) (p. 195, n. 9) cites Ufa minutes of August 28, 1934 quoting from a letter dated April 19, 1934: "Fraulein Riefenstahl has artistic and technical responsibility for the film, having been appointed by the Fuhrer in the name of the NSDAP's [Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, or National Socialist German Workers' Party] Reichsleitung [Administration]."
124［201］十月にヒトラーが決断を AH in October: LRM glides over Hitler's decision in her memoirs, where she is setting the scene for another denunciation of Goebbels, but Five Lives reprints the same passage drawn on here (LRM) pp. 146-47), clarifying that AH's statement that "the motion picture about the national Party rally is to be made by Fraulein Riefenstahl and not by the Party film people" referred specifically to Triumph of the Will. See Five Lives, p. 308. It is probably an accident of history, but at virtually the same time (October 5, 1933), Hitler decided the Reich should build a new sports stadium for the 1936 Olympics.
124［201］「女でなければ」 "if you weren't": LRM, p. 147. This is one of the rare dated exchanges in LR's memoirs. She puts it on October 13, 1933, the day Goebbels flew to Geneva to announce Germany's withdrawal from the League of Nations. There are no diary entries by JG for that date.
124［202］「こんな条件を出されて」 "Tell me one person": In Barsam, Filmguide, pp. 15-16.
124 Julius Streicher: LR's power of attorney letter, cited in the notes for Chapter 6 was dated December 11, 1933. The Gestapo later tracked LR's contacts to Streicher (see Chapter 14): IfZ, Munich, doc. MA 612/57, p.60381.
124［202］ダボス Davos: Int. PW/LR, Augast 11, 1971, tape 17, side A, transcript 17, p. 1.
124［202］ヒトラーのお気に入り favorite of Hitler's: Hamann, p. 64.
125［204］グレーのメルツェデス gray Mercedes: LR mentions the car several times in LRM, dating it before the making of Triumph of the Will. According to her sister-in-1aw, it was a gift from Hitler (Collignon, p. 169).
125［204］著作権 copyright: There are multiple issues here. Most important is LR's false claim of independence from the party in the making of the film. The important late-life question for her was almost solely economic.
For purposes of making Triumph of the Will, the name L-R-Studio-Film was changed to Reich Party Rally Film (Reichsparteitag-Film GmbH). Following the collapse of the Reich, the ownership of LR's films for the party became the subject of intense legal maneuvering by LR (see Chapter 17). The Museum of Modern Art's Charles Silver told SB that its print of Triumph of the Will was frequently shown at the museum's film center and almost always elicited a demand from LR or her representatives for royalty payments.
On ownership: "Every serious investigation . . . has come to the conclusion that the NSDAP should be regarded as the producer of Triumph des Willens, as well as of Sieg des Glaubens and Tag der Freiheit" (Rother [English], pp. 72-73). For Olympia, see Chapters 11 and 12 below.
125［204］契約としてウーファが Ufa deal approved by Hitler: Rother (English) cites Ufa minutes: "The Fuhrer has given his approval for the film to be distributed by Ufa" (p. 195, n. 9).
125［204］帝国映画信用銀行 Reich Film Credit Bank: The Filmkreditbank was founded in June 1933 as a means of controlling what got made. Funds were provided for privately produced films that were deemed politically acceptable or desirable and withheld from those that were not. When the Reich officially took over Ufa and other film studios in 1937, the bank was no longer necessary as a control institution. Beyer, p. 22.
125［205］ 正確な予算や経費costs of Triumph of the Will: No final accounting is possible, but LR claimed to Mrchel Delahaye in 1965 that the picture "was a very cheap film. It cost only 280,000 marks," but this figure is almost certainly a fantasy or a mistranslation, cited here from Sarris, Interviews, p. 458. Elsewhere (see text) LR claimed that fully one-third of the three hundred thousand reichsmarks advanced by Ufa were spent before production ever began, but an advance is a form of down payment, not a budget.
126［205］『低地』の映画化権を買って bought the film rights to Tiefland: Int. PW/LR, as cited above, tape 17) side A, transcript 17, p. 2.
126［205］ヴァルター・ルットマン Walter Ruttmann: Kreimeier, p. 272.
126［205］「戦争教育」 "educated for war": Kreimeier, p. 272.
126［206］「歴史上の大事件を再現し」 "revisit all the": Film- Kurier, September 3, 1934, cited in Rother (English), p. 196, n. 14.
126［206］レニはイギリスへ行き traveled to England: LRM, p. 153. A German-langnage news article signed by G. L. von dem Knesebeck and bearing the title "Leni Riefenstahl with the Oxford Students" carries an Oxford dateline of April 30. It includes a photograph of LR with officers of the German Club and states that LR told them that no film she had made took less than a year to complete and that The Blue Light had taken a year and a half. The text quotes a student: "Leni Riefenstahl brought an atmosphere from Germany with her that inspired us all. Now we know quite exactly what the spirit of the New Germany must be."
127 forty to one: Shirer, Rise and Fall, p. 205. Alan Bullock estimates half as much (Bullock, Hitler: A Study, p. 285).
128［208］レームへの公開書簡 letter to Rohm:Volkischer Beobachter, January 2, 1934, here quoted from Shirer, Rise and Fall, p. 208.
128［209］一九三三年ニュルンベルク党大会の直前 just before the Nuremberg rally of 1933: JG diaries, August 25, 1933, p. 461. Here the issue is made explicit: "Chancellor and Reich President united in one office. "
129［210］イアン・カーショー Ian Kershaw: Hubris, p. 516.
129［210］「六月三十一日、七月一日および」 "The measures taken": Quoted from Fest, Hitler, p. 468.
129［210］ヒトラーが公の席でこの粛清に "horror at the butchery": Kershaw, Hubris, p. 517.
129［210］二時間におよぶ演説 two-hour oration: Quoted from Fest, Hitler, p. 469.
129［210］「ドイツ国民のために」」 murder in the interest of the state: Kershaw, Hubris, p. 518.
129［210］死の床にあったヒンデンブルクは Hindenburg's statement: Shirer, Rise and Fall, p. 312.
129［212］「ヒトラーが本物の」 "We love him": Gen. Walther von Reichenau, quoted in Kershaw, Hubris, p. 497.
129［212］軍とはりあえる立場にはない Hitler at mercy of military: Fest, Hitler, p. 457.
129［212］「軍人が同じ軍人の」 "if the army": Ibid.,p. 471.
130［212］「ドイツ国民にとって」「」個人の偉大さ "national myth" and "greatness": Quoted by Fest, Hitler, p. 475.
130［213］「神の名のもと」に oath "by God": Reichsgesetzblatt 1934, I, p. 785, quoted in Stackelberg and Winkle, p. 174. The words here are from the law of August 20, 1934.
130［213］「その時点では」 "Up to then": Fest, Hitler, p. 469.
130［213］「忘却能力は大したもの」 "power of forgetting": Mein Kampf, p. 180.
131［214］「総統と国民のあいだの絆」 "The bond": LR "Wie der Film vom Reichsparteitag entsteht," Der Deutsche no 14, January 17, 1935, quoted after Rother (English), p. 205.
131［214］「賛美」 "glorification": See Muller, Wonderful, Horrible Life, in which she uses the word matter-of-factly as challenge and achievement.
131［215］ヴァルター・フレンツ Walter Frentz: Int. PW/Walter Frentz, August 3, 1971, Weberlingen, tape 11, transcript 11, pp. 20-22.
131［215］ヴァルター・トラウト Walter Traut: Int. PW/Walter Traut, as cited, tapes 5 and 6, citations from transcript 5, pp. 23 ("many days before"), 18 ("a conception"), and 17 ("Leni Riefenstahl was not ordered").
131［215］「五月から」 "since May": LR, Hinter, p. 16.
131［215］謝辞 acknowledgments: Ibid., "Zum Geleit" (foreword), n.p. LR told Peggy Wallace she was particularly unhappy with the book's expression of gratitude to Goebbels for having "supported the completion of the film work in every way" (PW, tape 4, transcript pp. 10-l2).
132［216］「私の書いた文章とは」 "I didn't write": Weigel, "Interview," p. 408.
132［216］第三帝国文化局 Reich Culture Office: The document is part of the LR file, BDC, dated July 24, 1935. Richard Barsam and others cite LR's receipt from Jager for one thousand marks for his services on the book, a copy of which is in LR's Berlin Document Center files. It would seem unlikely that LR would not have retained approval of the text.
132［216］ボルマンにも贈っている autograph for Bormann: Bormann's personal copy of the book was autographed by LR on April 2, 1935, "with sincere gratitude" ( "mit herzlichem Dank").
132［216］エミール・シュネーマン Emil Schunemann: LR's letters to the film division of August 17, 1934, and August 29, 1934, are part of her BDC file. The translation here is based on Rother (English), pp. 195-96.
132［217］八月、レニは Nuremberg in August: An exact date is not certain, though Hitler traveled to Nuremberg on Augnst 20 to approve plans for the rally and was photographed with Riefenstahl on his visit, placing her there at least two weeks before the rally began.
132 production staff: The numbers vary slightly from account to account. Those here are taken from the official listing in Hinter den Kulissen and from Barsam, p. 23. Brian Winston has noted discrepancies and cites one aerial cameraman rather than the nine in Barsam, though this seems an error, as nine is LR's own figure in Hinter.
133［218］『ニューズウィーク』 Newsweek: LR appeared on the cover as "Hitler's Friend" on September 15, 1934. Flanner's New Yorker article, "Fuhrer: A Document," is reprinted in Flanner, pp. 375-415. The citation here appears on p. 383.
133［218］明るいグレーの制服 uniforms of light gray: Int. PW/Walter Traut, as cited above, tape 5, transcript 5, p. 25. Traut boasted that the uniforms were designed by a Berlin couturier.
134［222］ゴードン・クレイグ Gordon Craig: In Germany, 1866-1945, p. 545.
135［222］ティー・パーティ tea party and quotes: Rother (English), p. 59, quoting "Leni Riefenstahl's Abschied von Nurnberg," Frankische Tageszeitung, September 13, 1934.
135［224］「神秘主義と宗教的熱狂」 "something of the mysticism": Shirer, Twentieth Century Journey, p. 120.
136［225］シャイラーによれば「ローマ皇帝」のように Shirer "emperor" quote: Ibid., p. 119.
136［226］イアン・カーショー Ian Kershaw: Kershaw, "Hitler Myth, "p. 70.
137［228］シュペーアによれば according to Speer: Int. PW/AS, Heidelberg, August 14, 1971, tape 1, side A, transcript p. 3.
137［228］「純粋な記録映画」 "a pure historical film": Michel Delahaye in Sarrris, Interviews, p. 460.
137［228］「建築」と呼び "architecture": See for instance, ibid.,p. 461.
137［228］四万フィート分のフィルム footage lengths: LRM, p.162.
137［228］シュペーアの回想によれば Speer recalled, "She was": Int. PW/AS, as cited, tape 1. side A, transcript p. 10.
137［228］カール・ガイヤー Geyer: LRM, p. 184. The expansion of the facilities was completed for the editing of Olympia, but the construction began on Triumph of the Will.
137［229］ヴァルター・ルットマン Walter Ruttmann: Film-Welt, no. 7, February 17, 1935, "Triumph de Wlllens, " by Hans Erasmus Fischer, refers to LR's filming "together with Walter Ruttmann." Rother (English and German) maintains mistakenly that no press mentions of Ruttmann occurred after December.
138［229］シナリオの抜粋 Excerpts from his script: Rother (English), p. 62, n. 196, Film-Kurier, no. 235, October 6, 1934.
138［229］見学に来る a visit to the set and news reports: For news reports, see Licht-Bild-Biihne, no. 247, October 23, 1934, and "Die letzte Szene fur 'Sieg des Willens' wird gedreht," October 20, 1934, DZT, Deutsches Institut fur Filmkunde files. The second article cites Babelsberg shooting "on Monday" as well as further scenes to be shot in November. The wrrter clarms that "Sieg des Willens" was an early title, only recently changed to "Tnumph des Willens, " and refers to the original release date as December 1934.
Hitler's visit to LR's editing rooms on December 6, 1934, is cited by Rother, p. 63.
138［229］「新しい神」 "the new god": Kershaw, Hubris, p. 484.
138［230］「こういうこと」 "These things": LR to Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 461.
138［230］シュペーアはこういっている As Speer observed: Int. PW/AS, as cited, tape 1, side A, transcript p. 11.
138［230］講演までしていた even lectured about it: Rother, p. 199, n. 49.
139［231］見出しを掲げて Press headlines: After Trimborn, p. 222.
139［231］「かつてない大傑作」 "the greatest film": After Kinkel, p. 84.
139［231］「誰でもけっして忘れない」 "Whoever has seen": Knopp, p. 11.
139［232］「隊列を組んでの行進」 "forged to the tempo": Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. May 2, 1935.
140［234］有名な歴史家のいう noted historian: Kershaw in Hubris, p. 484.
11 プロパガンダの手段 CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE OLYMPIC IDEA
141［236］レニ・リーフェンシュタールの言葉 LR epigraph: Quoted in LRO, p. 96.
141［削除］ Klemperer epigraph: Klemperer, Diaries, p. 175.
142［237］「私たちの仕事は」 "the only thing": LRMG, pp. 245-46, and LRM, pp. 175-76.
142［237］『フィルム・クリーア』 Film-Kurier: After Culbert and Loiperdinger, p.8.
142［238］「ニュルンベルク三連作」 "Nuremberg triptych": Susan Sontag refers to rt as "the third in her tnptych of fascist visuals" in "Fascinating Fascism," p. 87.
142［238］「最も殺人的な法的規制」 "th most murderous": Reitlinger, p. 7.
142［238］「総統の演説のなかで最も」 "most beautiful Fuhrer speech":Enno patalas to SB, Munich, January 17, 2002.
143［239］「いやなことも忘れさせ」"joy" and "to forget" : LRMG, p. 191.
143 ［239］「マジック・ガーデン」「解放され」「頭の雑念が」"magic garden" and "freer" and "drove out": Ibid., p. 244.
143［240］「この世のどこにも」 Davos--"no air like it": LRM, p. 167. LR and the Lantschner family: Int. PW/LR August 11, 1971, Munich, tape 17, transcript 4, p. 4. Guzzi and Otto Lantschner were well known for distributing National Socialist literature at sporting events. Their sister was on the German women's ski team.
143［240］マックス・ラインハルト Max Reinhardt: LRM, pp. 152-53.
"Germany needs": LRO, p. 3. The citation is from the "peace" speech of March 21, 1935.
144［242］「ほかの誰が」 "Who else but you": LRMG, p. 251. In LRM, p. 179, "could" is mistranslated as "should."
144［242］「世界の人びとを客として」 "If one has invited": LRO, p. 13; too small: Kershaw, Nemesis, p. 6; post-1940: Sereny, Speer, p. 154.
144［243］「ヒトラーの横暴」 "Under the Heel": Cited in Mandell, p. 75.
145［243］ハリー・ケスラー卿 Kessler: Diaries, pp. 467-68. Kessler emphasizes that the Olympic committees of France, England, and elsewhere had made plain that they would not send athletes to Berlin were Lewald to be removed from his position. "After the Games he becomes irrevocably non-Aryan," Kessler added.
145［243］声明を出したが he reassured the world: Quoted in LRO, p. 6.
145［244］シュトライヒャー Streicher: Ibid., p. 5.
145［244］ ブランデージは実情把握のためにBrundage and Jewish athletes: LRO, pp. 7-8.
145［244］ブランデージの発言 Brundage quotes: "Politics" is from Tony Blankle , Washington Times, July 18, 2001. "Certain Jews" is from an official Olympics publication, cited by Furlong.
145［244］「ドイツは国内のオリンピック選考会において」 "Germans are not": The secretary was Frederick W. Rubien (Mandell, p. 84).
146［245］十二月にニューヨークで開かれた全米体育協会 December 1935 vote: LRO, p. 7. See also Mandell, pp. 87-88. Many charges have been leveled at Brundage, who later became president of the International Olympic Committee and aroused controversy when he insisted the 1972 Munich games continue after the massacre of Jewish athletes. He died in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, site of the 1936 Winter Olympics.
146［245］「奇跡のように」 Diem as "perfect miracle": Mandell, p. 94.
146［246］「オリンピックのアイデア」 "the Olympic idea": LRM, p. 169.
146［246］詳細な分析ノート Fanck's detailed analysis: "Was soll mit der Verfilmung der Olympiade bezweckt werden? " These pages are in the Fanck Collection of the Munich Film Museum.
146［246］「中途半端は嫌いだ」 "I do not like": Quoted in LRO, p.96.
146［246］「古代オリンピックの」 "I could see": LRM, p. 171.
147［247］第三帝国スポーツ指導者 Reich Sport Leader: Von Tschammer und Osten was one of the so-called old comrades of Hitler's early struggles. Frick was hanged following the Nurember trials.
147［247］ディエムはお飾りのスポークスマン Diem sidelined: Quoted in LRO, p. 13.
147［247］トビス映画社にもちかけると LR and Tobis: This version has had many outings by LR, though it is not supported by the evidence. See LRM or Hitchens, "An Interview," for examples. The most elaborate--and untrustworthy--is LR's legal description of 1958, Appendix C in LRO, pp. 270-79.
147［247］トビスとの契約 Tobis guarantee: LR consistently misstated the Tobis guarantee as 1.5 million Friedrich Mainz confirmed in 1958 and again in 1971 that the amount he agreed to was 750,000 RM (int. PW/FM, July 29, 1971, tape 10, transcript 10, p. 19). The amount in the Tobis contract is 800,000 RM, but the discrepancy appears to be the result of Ufa's last-minute reconsideration of its rejection of August 1935. Ufa debated internally whether or not to buy Tobis out for 800,000 RM (it elected not to). It appears likely that Tobis had a deal but no signed contract until December 4, 1936, a date some have suggested is a mistake and should read 1935. The dating is almost certainly correct, however, as the contract refers to two pictures, the second to be guaranteed 200,000 RM. The decision to make two pictures came only in November 1936 after LR had reviewed her footage. See LR's letter to Paul Kohner (below), September 1936, at which point the German distribution question was still unresolved.
Barkhausen (p. 11) points out that Tobis's accounting was made both to Olympia-Film and to the propaganda ministry.
147［247］「頭のまわる女だ！」 "She's a clever thing!": JG diaries, August 17, 1935, for August 15, vol. 2, p. 503.
147［247］十月四日には By October 4: Ibid., October 5, 1935, for October 4, vol. 2, p. 523.
147［248］「契約は承認された」 "Contract... approved": Ibid., October 13, 1935, for October 13, vol. 2, p. 526.
147［248］十一月七日の記述 By November 7: Ibid., November 7, 1935, for November 6, vol. 2, p. 537.
147［248］ヒトラーの承認 Hitler's approval: August 21, 1935, LRO, p. 19.
147［248］歳入のあてがある "certain to bring revenue": Finance ministry memo of October 17, 1935, cited by Barkhausen, p. 9.
148［248］オリンピア映画有限会社 Olympia-Film GmbH: The document cited is from the propaganda ministry (Herr Ott) to the district court of Berlin, January 30, 1936, and quoted after Rother (English), pp. 82 and 201, n. 17. See also Barkhausen, p. 10. See LRM, pp. 176-77) for LR's quite different version; and LRO, pp. 16-24 and 30-37. Appendix C in LRO, pp. 270-79, reproduces LR's postwar legal positions, which rarely coincide with the documentatlon and which Barkhausen terms "products of Leni Riefenstahl's imagination."
Barkhausen cites a further letter from the Reich Film Chamber to the Berlin court on February 12, 1936, reaffirming that "we are not talking then about a private enterprise, or about an enterprise with ordinary commercial aims, but about a company founded exclusively for the purpose of external organization and production of the said film. It is inadvisable [untunlich] for the government itself to appear as the producer."
148［249］レニと弟ハインツだけが株主 LR and Heinz as stockholders: The incorporation documents claim an investment of eighteen thousand reichsmarks by LR and two thousand by her brother, but neither sum had been paid ten months after the Berlin courts noted the company's establishment. Barkhausen (p. 10) cites a letter from the examination board of the propaganda ministry of October 16, 1936, to that effect. That the company was basically fictitious did not mean that it was free of bureaucratic rules and requirements.
148［249］第三帝国の隠れ蓑 front for the Reich: No current accounts dispute the point. See mainly Barkhausen and LRO.
148［249］コーナーに手紙を出した Kohner letter: LR to Paul Kohner, September 16, 1936, Kohner Collection, Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, Berlin. It is worth noting that here the distribution question in Germany had not yet been settled, and LR refers twice to "film" in the singular. The plan for two films had not yet been proposed.
148［249］「びっくりするほどの額」 "sensational amount": LRM, p. 172.
148［250］『デア・アングリフ』 Angriff: From Mandell (p. 156), who notes the New York Times, July 6, 1936, n.p.
149［250］「予防拘禁」 "preventive custody": Mandell, p. 157, and Lewy, p. 25. Gypsies: Lewy, p. 22; Berlin-Marzahn as first racial camp: Gilsenbach, pp. 141-47, 167-69, and Rosenberg, p. 139, n. 1. See also Hoess, p. 92. The future commandant of Auschwitz was part of the "preventrve custody" roundup in Berlin for the Olympics. The Gypsy to reenter LR's life was Charlotte Rosenberg (Rosenberg, p. 142, n. 8). Browning, in Origins, p. 180, cites an earlier camp in Cologne.
149［250］シャイラーは Shirer incident: Shirer, Twentieth Century Journey, pp. 230-32.
149［251］旗 flags: Mandell, pp. 65, 159.
149［251］『タイム』誌の表紙 Time magazine cover: She was on the cover February 17, 1936, just as the Winter Olympics ended.
150［252］トレーニングを重ねた LR on training: Int. PW/LR, Augnst 7, 1971, Munich, tape 15, transcript 15B, pp. 5-6.
150［252］カラーフィルムも試してみたが Color was investigated: Ibid., pp. 13-14. Cameraman Heinz von Jaworsky confirmed testing with color.
151［254］「可能なかぎりあらゆる角度から」 "everything would have": LRM, p. 173.
151［254］「不可能を可能にすること」 "impossible": LRMG, p. 259.
151［254］「オリンピックをなるべく密着して」 "to shoot the Olympics": LRM, p. 186.
151［255］「はっきりいって」 "actually any camera": Ibid.
151［256］初めてテレビ中継を Goebbels and television: "Nazi TV, " Spiegel TV, 2000.
152［257］「金を捨てて」「いいえ」 "It was just" and "No": Willy Zielke, quoted in LRO, p. 45.
152［257］「頭のなかに」"The moment I had": Michel Delahaye, Cahier du Cinema, reprinted in Sarris, Interviews, p. 467.
153［258］「闘い」と「詩」 "struggle" and "poetics": Int. PW/LR, August 7, 1971, tape 15, transcript 15B, p. 22.
153［258］「これこそ」 "You only see": Ibid., p. 11.
153［258］聖火リレー torch race: Mandell, pp. 145-54.
153［260］「もっと彼を撮って」 "Shoot more of him": Heinz von Jaworsky, quoted in LRO, p. 62.
153［260］アナトリ・ドブリアンスキー Anatol Dobriansky: Mostly from LRM, pp. 188-89.
154［260］ツィールケでさえ Zielke in love: Ertl made the claim in his memoirs (Ertl, p. 184).
154［260］「ヒトラーなどお呼びじゃない」 "She didn't need": Int. PW/Robert Gardner, Cambridge, Mass., January 26, 1971.
154［262］グレン・モリスとの恋 LR's affair with Glenn Morris: LRM, p. 196.
154［262］「私を抱きしめ」 "grabbed me": Ibid.
154［262］「あれほど情熱に駆られたのは」 "Never before had I experienced": Ibid., p. 199.
154［262］もリスはすばらしく写真うつりがよかった Glenn Morris photographs: They appear in Beauty of the Olympic Games, the book of still photographs published under LR's name about the games. Almost all of the photographs are by her cameramen or are frame blowups, signed-though not made-by LR.
154［262］「ルーヴァルト城」 Castle Ruhwald: LRMG, p. 264.
154［264］『フィルム・クリーア』が特集 Film-Kurier citation: August 4, 1936, quoted from Rother (English), pp. 78-79.
155［264］ベラ・フロム Bella Fromm: Reprinted in Als Hitler mir die Hand kusste, pp. 249-50, as cited in Rother (English), p. 200. A different, somewhat harsher translation appears in Fromm, Blood and Banquets, pp. 225-26.
155［264］ハンス・エルトゥル Hans Ertl: Ertl, p. 221, here quoted from LRO, p. 101.
155［265］『ニューヨーク・タイムズ』 New York Times: August 14, 1936, quoted from ibid., p. 100.
155［265］レニは審判に食ってかかった Leni threatened: Jager, cited in LRO, p. 93. LR's own version is that she called the referee "Schweinehund": LRMG, p. 269, or "bastard" in LRM, p. 194. She does not mention threatening a Hitler confrontation.
155［265］ゲッベルスはレニに Goebbels demanded she apologize: JG diaries, August 6, 1936, vol. 2, p. 655.
155［265］「どっと涙を流した」 "cried bitter tears": LRM, p. 194.
155［265］涙は本物だったかも Her tears: Int. PW/LR. August 6, 1971, Munich, tape 14, transcript 14B, p. 10.
156［266］ロバート・ガードナー Robert Gardner: Int. PW/Robert Gardner, January 26, 1971, Cambridge, Mass., transcript 25, p. 2.
156［266］「私には商才はない」 "I didn't have a talent": Int. PW/LR, August 6, 1971, Munich, tape 14, transcript 14B, p. 9.
156［268］収支報告書 disbursement and receipts: Barkhausen, p. 9.
157［268］それは自分のアイデアだったと would later claim credit: The Cathedral of Light had been introduced by Speer at the 1934 rally but became famous during the Olympics. LR told Gitta Sereny after Speer's death that it had been her idea. Sereny, Speer, p. 129.
157［269］マルゴット・フォン・オペル Margot von Opel, Nuremberg: LRO, p. 144.
157［269］ゲッベルスはレニに対する怒りを Goebbels's fury: JG diaries, September 18, 1936, vol. 2, p. 680.
157［270］「細部にこだわりすぎないように」 "Let's not be petty": Barkhausen, p. 11.
157［270］「公務員の背信」 "white collar crime": LRO, p. 147.
157［270］赤字 LR and shortfall: LRM, p. 200.
158［270］監査報告書 shambles and audit: LRO, pp. 143-53.
158［270］「なんたるでたらめ」 "pig sty of a mess": JG diaries, October 25, 1936, p. 707.
158［270］これに抗議し Leni resisted: LRO, p. 149. The quotation is from postwar testimony of 1948 by Friedrich Mainz of Tobis.
158［272］一本ではなく二本の映画 two films instead of one: LRM claims that Tobis accepted the notion of two films before the fact, but all such claims appear to be of postwar origin. Film-Kurier, July 5, 1937, quotes LR as deciding she needed two films sometime between December 1936 and January 1937, though the Goebbels diaries mention that decision in November. The official change from one film to two would not come until seven months later, on May 18, 1937, in a memo from the Reich Film Chamber to Goebbels (LRO p. 159).
158［272］イェーガー夫妻はおたがい Jager's wife and open marriage: Int. SB/Linda Jager D'Aprix, February 24, 2006.
158［272］「傲慢さ」 "insolence": LRM, p. 201.
158［272］運命を「悲劇のよう」だと described her fate as "tragic": LRO, Appendix C, p. 277. The term is found in LR's unpublished "Ein Bericht uber die Herstellung der Olympia-Filme," an unreliable document from the 1950s prepared in part to advance her copyright claim in the film on which royalties depended.
158［272］「どっと涙があふれた」 "I began to weep": LRM, p. 201. LR's memoirs are very vagne with dates here. She places the meeting with AH in November, though evidence suggests December. See LRO, p. 150.
159［273］十一月六日にそのことを知らされたゲッベルス Goebbels learned of it on November 6: JG diaries, vol. 2, p. 717.
159［273］フィルムの整理 footage review: LR cited the figures here in Film-Kurier, July 5, 1937, p. 2. By the time she wrote her memoirs, the length of time had dramatically increased to fourteen-hour days for four months (LRM, p. 204).
159［273］七割が使いものにならない usable footage, 70 percent and 5 percent: Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 465.
159［274］ゲッベルスの差し金 ban by Goebbels on publicity: LR asserted this in court as part of her lawsuit to gain royalties from the film as well as in LRM, p. 200. See LRO, pp. 145-46.
159［274］タブロイド紙は Tabloid items: The most widely reprinted of these was Paris-Soir's front-page story "La Disgrace de Lern Rrefenstahl," June 14, 1937.
159［274］「きっぱりと否定」 Goebbels's "very sharp denial": JG diaries, June 16, 1937, vol. 3, p. 175.
159［274］レニの贅沢な別荘 luxurious new villa: The chapter "Dahlem, Heydenstrasse 30" in LRMG is deleted from LRM. In German, LR says Hans Ostler and Max Otto designed the house, though Rother cites sources naming Ernst Petersen. Petersen had appeared alongside Trenker as LR's suitor in The Holy Mountain. Why LR would misstate this is unknown, but her father had business connections with Petersen's family firm as early as the 1920s. See Rother (English), p. 206, n. 35.
160［274］試し焼きをつねにもち歩いて Leni carried proofs: LRM,p. 208.
160［275］彼の日記には his diary brims with: JG diaries, November 24, 1937, for November 23, vol. 4, p. 344.
160［275］ヒトラーと夕食をともにし dined with Hitler: JG diaries, November 26, 1937, for November 25, vol. 4, p. 347. He discusses Jews and the theater on p. 346.
160［275］ツィールケが撮影した古典的な Zielke's classical prologue: See LRO, pp. 156-58. LRM spends considerable time refuting Zielke's later charges against her, including, among other things, that she had him institutionalized and castrated. See LRM, pp. 203-4.
160［275］「あそこには構造が」 "It had no": LRO, p. 158; and "I made": Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 467.
160［275］飛び込みのシーン diving sequence: Int. PW/LR, Munich, August 7, 1971, tape 15, side B, transcript 15, p. 11.
160［275］「完璧を求めなければ」 "I could have edited": Mannheim, cited by Graham, LRO, p. 158.
161［276］「作曲家が曲を」 "As a composer": Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 467.
161［276］マラソンをどのように撮影するか marathon conception: Int. PW/LR, Munich, August 7, 1971, tape 15, side B, transcrip.t 15, p. 9.
161［278］「悪夢」 "a nightmare": LRM,p. 220.
161［278］ヘルマン・シュトール Hermann Storr: LRMG, pp. 302-3.
162［279］合唱団の指揮 Windt and chorus: LRO, p. 177.
162［279］「滝」のような "waterfall": Downing, p. 48.
162［279］プレミアの日程 final premiere date: LRM claims that LR traveled to Innsbruck and convinced Hitler personally to move the premiere from April 19 to April 20 (pp. 220-23). This account has been refuted on evidence of Hitler's travel schedule. See Trimborn, p. 537.
162［280］『フィルム・クーリア』宛てに LR in Film-Kurier: "Leni Riefenstahl zum 10. April," Film-Kurier, April 9, 1938, p.3, quoted by LRO in a slightly different translation, p. 181.
163［281］ウィーンだけでも Triumph on Vienna screens: Weyr, p. 71.
12 ドイツで最も有名な女性に CHAPTER TWELVE: TOMORROW THE WORLD
164［削除］ LR epigraph: LRM, p. 237.
164［282］ウィンチェルの言葉 Winchell epigraph: New York Daily Mirror, November 9, 1938, p. 10.
165［283］世界各国の外交官 The world's diplomats: LRO, pp. 186-87.
165［284］ハイドリヒ Heydrich: See Fest, Face, pp. 155ff.
166［285］「立派にやりとげた」 "A masterly achievement": JG diaries, April 21, 1938, part 1, vol. 5, p. 267.
166［286］ボーナス bonus: JG diaries, April 22 and April 23, 1938, part 1, vol. 5, pp. 267, 269.
166［286］ベルギー国王 the king of Belgium: LRM,p. 235.
167［287］「政治色を排した」 "the unpolitical": Ibid., p. 231.
167［287］ジェシー・オーエンス re Jesse Owens: Propaganda ministry directive, cited in LRO, p. 254.
167［287］メダル獲得数 Goebbels and point lists: LRO, p. 255.
168［288］金獅子賞 Golden Lion: See LRM, p. 235.
168［288］「あからさまな」 "blatant": Daily Film Renter, cited in LRO, p. 208.
168［289］ヒトラーのことをこう語った LR on Hitler: Quoted by Angus Quell in Royal Screen Pictorial, May 1935, cited in Fraser, p. 12.
168［289］ムッソリーニ Mussolini: See the "Mussolini" chapter in LRM, pp. 181-84. Specifically, she interpreted small talk to mean that Italy would not interfere with German plans to violate the Locarno Treaty by invading the Rhineland.
169［290］撮影は部下のカメラマン cameramen's photographs: The first edition of Schonheit credits Willy Zielke, among others, for photographs. The first edition (1937) includes this text: "Most of the pictures are enlargements from the Olympia film. The shots of the temples, sculptures and nudes are by Willy Zielke. Arthur Grimm took the stills. The photographs of work in progress are by Arthur Grimm and Rolf Lantin. Guzzi Lantschner selected the pictures from the film footage. Enlargements and preparation of the photographs: Gertrude Sieburg and Rolf Lantin" (p. 283).
The Olympic photographs are currently marketed and exhibited as LR's own work--with her approval and (often) her signature--though they are hers only in the sense that the photographers were in her employ Int. SB/Cooper C. Graham, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., June 7-10, 2004. LR's presentation copy of her similar Olympics portfolio, inscribed to Hitler, is in the rare-book collection of the LOC.
169［291］「三等船室の皿洗いでさえ」 "Even the dishwashers": The witness was Jager, "How Leni," part VI, June 2, 1939.
169［291］クリンゲベルク Klingeberg: LRO, p. 211.
169 Reich was fully financing the trip: An advance of eight thousand reichsmarks for the tour had been made by the economics ministry, though Goebbels's ministry would demand an accounting.
169［291］「非アーリア系」 "non-Aryan sectors": Film-Kurier, September 24, 1938, cited by Rentschler, Ministry, p. 46. It is perhaps noteworthy that in LRM and LRMG, she places herself in Rome with Olympia at the time of the Munich conference, though the Rome premiere took place in August. She was, in fact, then in Munich for the rerelease of The Blue Light.
169 shipboard companions: LRO, p. 212. For the Whiteheads, see LRM, p. 242. LR claims there that she knew them well enough in Berlin that the couple had presented her with a puppy she kept and trained.
170［292］「くすくす笑い」 "giggled": Unsourced news article, author's collection.
170［292］ウィンチェル Winchell: New York Daily Mirror, November 9, 1938, p. 10.
170［293］マホニー Mahoney statement: LRO, p. 213.
170［293］ハイドリヒは Heydrich's directive: Shirer, Rise and Fall, p. 431.
171［293］「恐怖の夜」 "night of horror" and "human misery": Kershaw, Nemesis, pp. 140, 141. Shirer also uses the phrase "night of horror" in Rise and Fall, p. 431.
171［294］ブーヘンヴァルト収容所では murders in Buchenwald: Gilbert, p. 69.
171［294］財産の二割が強制的に confiscation of property: Ibid., p. 73; 267 synagogues: Friedlander, p. 276; Kershaw quote: Nemesis. p. 143.
171［294］「のんきで自覚がない」 "carefree": LRM, pp. 237ff. Re King Vidor: conversation SB/King Vidor, Malibu, December 31, 1970. Vidor said he sent "professional congratulations" through an intermediary after seeing Olympia in Europe but never personally met LR.
171［294］「ありえないような」「そんな記事を」 "It was only" and "had I": LRM, p. 237.
171［295］忠告されていた diplomats advise LR: LRO, p. 216. Graham cites Consul General Dr. Borchers and Heinz Bellers, the representative of the propaganda ministry in America, among others, as having urged her to cut short her trip and return home. "Hurricane": Ambassador Hans Dieckhoff, cited in LRO, p. 216.
171［295］ゲシュタポのニューヨーク支部 Gestapo agents: Jager, "How Leni," part VII, June 9, 1939, p. 14. The Gestapo reportedly advised LR not to accept an offer for Olympia from the manager of Sonia Henie.
171［295］「嵐が収まるまで」 "I have to wait": Ibid., p. 13. Jager is problematic because his publishing about LR seems as opportunistic as he accused her of being. Still, he knew LR well, was present throughout the American tour, and, as LR later complained in a legal deposition, was constantly at her side taking notes.
172［295］「陽気な雰囲気」 "cheerful atmosphere": LRM, p. 237.
172［296］アーリア化 Aryanization: Kershaw, Nemesis, p. 131.
172［296］シナゴーグ synagogues: Ibid., p. 132.
172［296］ゲッベルスがいうように as Goebbels remarked: Ibid., p. 135.
172［297］ヘンリー・フォード Henry Ford: LRO, p. 218.
173［298］ヒューバート・ストウィッツ Hubert Stowitts: Here and following mostly from LRO, pp. 182, 225-26. Also, McDonagh, "Gay Bears: The Hidden History of the Berkeley Campus," University of California at Berkeley, http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/gaybears/Stowitts. See also Stowitts Museum. LR says in LRM that she had known Stowitts since 1934.
174［299］内装を手がけ decorating and dieting: LRMG, pp. 325-26.
174［300］コーナー宛てに Kohner and MGM: Kohner had offered the picture to William Goetz, son-in-1aw of Louis B. Mayer. The Kohner Collection at the Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek contains a letter to Goetz dated September 30, 1936, two weeks after LR's original request, and another to LR dated October 9 informing her of Goetz's lack of interest.
174 advertisements: Hollywood Reporter, November 29, 1938, p. 5; Daily Variety, same date, p. 5.
175［301］「最も偉大なスポーツ映画」 "the greatest sports film": Graham, " Olympia in America," p. 439.
175［302］ガーランドは Garland to Brundage: Ibid., p. 443. The letter is in the Avery Brundage Collection, (Applied Life Studies Library, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, I1linois), dated December 2, 1938.
176［302］『ハリウッド・シチズン・ニュース』 Hollywood Citizen-News: The reviewer was Henry McLemore, cited in Graham, "Olympia, "p. 444. Original is dated December 17, 1938.
176［303］『ロサンゼルス・タイムズ』 Los Angeles Times: Cited from Graham, "Olympia, " p. 445, and from unsourced reprint of review, later used as advertising material for the film. Graham Collection, Library of Congress.
176［303］バド・シュールバーグ Budd Schulberg: Cited in Graham, " Olympia, " p. 444.
176［303］『デイリー・バラエティ』 Daily Variety: December 7, 1938, cited in Graham, " Olympia, " p. 443. Motion Picture Herald, November 12, 1938, p. 19.
176［304］新しい愛人 new lover: Jager does not identify him, but LR was socially active in California. Following her return to Germany, her office notified the Reichsfilmkammer that an actor of German origin named Ferdinand Geigel, then living in La Crescenta, California, wanted to return to Germany if he would be allowed to work in the industry. Letter, LR to Reichsfilmkammer (Abteiling Fachschaft Film), July 22, 1939, BDC, Riefenstahl file.
176［304］「ヒトラーの愛人」 "Hitler's girl friend": Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, December 27, 1938.
177［304］「ばかばかしいにも」 "It is all": San Francisco News, December 31, 1938.
177［306］「壁がめぐらされています」 "There are four walls": San Francisco Chronicle, December 31, 1938.
178［308］イェーガーが突然、アメリカに残ると Jager chose to remain in America: Int. SB/Linda Jager D'Aprix, February 25, 2006, and int. SB/Robert Lantz, January 13 and July 27, 2006. There is an undocumented assumption that LR helped protect Charlotte Jager and her son Frank, both of whom relocated to South America sometime before 1942. Jager survived difficulties with American immigration authorities and eventually worked his way to Hollywood after menial jobs at (among other venues) the Jewish Children's Hospital in Denver. See also Lewinski, pp. 11-75.
178［309］トビス映画社のニューヨーク支部 Tobis in America: Motion Picture Herald, November 12, 1938, p. 19\ The closure of the Tobis office alone indicates that Tobis had nothing to do with the hoped-for licensing of Olympia in America, which was solely an endeavor of LR and the Reich.
178［309］暴露記事 Jager's articles: These articles (Jager, "How Leni") are well known, and LRM refers to them as "mixtures of facts and infamous lies" (p. 247). LR notes, "These articles included passages that were true, sections that Jager had copied from my letters" (ibid.). In spite of this seeming admission, the articles need to be approached with caution. Jager remains, apart from LR, the principal source for private events during the American tour.
178［309］講演をし Paris lecture: Kinkel, p. 167.
179［309］『ハンブルク・ターゲブラット』 Hamburg interview: Hamburger Tageblatt, January 30, 1939, here from Kinkel, pp. 170-71.
179［309］ゲッベルスと会見したとき She told Goebbels: Tagebucher, vol. 3,p. 569.
179［310］プレミアの日までさかのぼり retroactive reimbursement: After LRO, pp. 228-34, especially pp. 229-30.
179［310］完全に国有化されたドイツ映画界 fully nationalized film industry: See Hull, pp. 107-25.
179［310］二〇パーセントの支払い手続き request for percentage: After LRO, pp. 228-34, specifically p. 230.
180［311］「オリンピア映画社は帝国の所有物」 "The Olympics films are Reich property": LRO, p. 233.
180［311］「残りの純益の二〇パーセントを」 "20% of the remaming net proceeds": Ibid.
180［311］個人資金 Hitler financing: JG diaries, June 21, 1939, part 1, vol. 6, p. 387.
180［312］レニイ専用の映画スタジオ film studio for her personal use: Rother (English), pp. 99-103.181 Italo Balbo: In Venice: LRM, p. 235; meeting in 1932: JG, Tagebucher, December 11, 1932. Balbo, an intimate of Mussolini's since 1922, was killed in 1940 at Tobruk in what may have been a "friendly fire" incident.
181［313］ゲルマニア Germania project financed by the Reich: Horak, p. 58. Horak speculates that Fanck's joining the party was suggested to him by LR or one of her colleagues.
第三部 余波 PART THREE: AFTERMATH
183［削除］ Hitler epigraph: Mein Kampf, p. 177.
183［削除］ Klemperer epigraph: Klemperer, p. 295.
13 戦時下の困難 CHAPTER THIRTEEN: LENI AT WAR
185［削除］ Hitler epigraph: See "Hitler speech" below.
185［316］レニの言葉 LR epigraph: LRMG, p. 908.
185［316］指揮官たちにそう語った Hitler speech: Stackelberg and Winkle, p. 246, from U.S. Department of State Publication 6462, Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, series D, vol. VII, pp. 205-6.
185［316］「世界が崩壊するように」 "world collapsed": LRM,p. 254.
185［316］祝う会に出席した Berlin reception: Ibid., p. 253; "happy and filled": Ibid., p. 254.
186［317］国民議会でヒトラーの演説が Reichstag address: LRM's chronology here is especially slippery. LR claims she drove late in the afternoon or early evening from Bolzano to Berlin to arrive in time for Hitler's Reichstag address at 10:00 a.m. on September 1 (LRM, p. 254). The driving distance of hundreds of kilometers strains credulity. In LRM, she never mentions the Berghof and claims to have seen Hitler twice in late August in Berlin.
She writes of a Berlin screening for Hitler of Soviet newsreels of Stalin that Speer and Goebbels also attended shortly before the announcement of the Nazi-Soviet Pact (ibid., p. 253). According to both men, the cited screening took place at Hitler's Berghof.
186［317］「今夜初めて」 "This night": Bullock, Hitler: Study, p. 547. The hour was misstated; the attack had begun at 4:45 A.M.
186［318］シャイラー William L. Shirer: "This Is Berlin": "They listened" (p. 74); "Polish thing" (p. 75); FDR (p. 72); "not only" (p. 79). All are from the first week of September 1939.
186［318］「第三帝国政府高官」 "high-ranking": LRM, p. 257.
187［319］「リーフェンシュタール特別映画班」 "Special Riefenstahl": The documents are found in BA-Militararchiv: RW 4/185 and RW 4/261. These and other Bundesarchiv documents confirm the establishment of the unit as official, but operating independently as "sonder" (special) would indicate.
187［319］ハインツ・クルト Heinz Kluth: LR misnames him "Knuth" in LRMG, p. 352, and LRM, p. 259.
187［319］九月十日 September 10: This is the correct date. LRMG cites it as September 8 on p. 350. In LRM, it appears as September 9, p. 257. A Bundesarchiv document (BA-Militararchiv W 0l-6/377) refers to the 7:00 a.m. departure on September 10. Details of the convoy are from Kinkel, p. 217.
187［319］デッサウの労働者が Dessau execution: His name was Johann Heinen, according to Shirer, "This Is Berlin, " p. 81.
187［319］派手な見出し headlines: Ibid., pp. 79-80.
187［320］六万人の犠牲者 sixty thousand: Kershaw, Nemesis, p. 241.
187［320］マンシュタイン将軍に LR to Manstein: Manstein, p. 43.
187［320］マンシュタインは冷笑的に Manstein on LR: Ibid.
188［321］「そんなに危険な場所だとは」 "I hadn't imagined": LRM, p. 258.
188［321］「ドイツ国民に約束する」 DNB and "We promise": Shirer, "This ls Berlin, "p. 82.
188［321］噂を耳にした Leni heard rumors: LRM, p. 258; "terrified they were digging": Ibid.
188［321］ドイツ人の警官が She remembered a German police officer: Ibid.
188［321］そこでレニは Leni said she cried out: Ibid., p. 259.
188［322］レニはライヒェナウ将軍のもとへ Leni said she went to General von Reichenau: Ibid.
189［322］コンスキーのシナゴーグ Konskie synagogue and rabbi: Rabbi Weingarten, according to Wirth, p. 246.
189［322］レニはのちにこう書いている She later wrote: LRM,pp. 258-59; "I was so upset": Ibid., p. 259.
189［322］「暴虐の乱痴気騒ぎ」 Kershaw "orgy": Nemesis, p. 240.
189［322］「貴族、聖職者、ユダヤ人」 executions carried out and "the nobility": Ibid., p. 243.
189［324］ヴロツラヴェク Another was Wloclawek: Rhodes, pp. 6-7.
189［324］後年の事件 later actions: See Heer, Vernichtungskrieg, the catalog of the exhibition that occasioned public controversy in Germany in 1996.
190［326］ホルスト・メツケ Horst Maetzke: Riefenstahl file, Institut fur Zeitgeschichte, Munich. Thanks to Frau Frolich for directing me to this source.
190［326］マンシュタイン将軍の補佐官 aide to General von Manstein: This was Rudolf Langhaeuser. His testimony is quoted here from Rother (English), p. 211, citing Die Welt's coverage of the Manstein trial, November 4, 1949.
190［326］マンシュタインの回想録 Manstein confirmed this: Manstein, p. 44.
190［327］「ユダヤ人に対して」 "severe expiation": Die Welt, November 2, 1949, cited after Rother (English), p. 130. Reichenau's remark was quoted in the 1949 war crimes trial of von Manstein.
190［327］恩赦令 Hitler's amnesty decree: Kershaw, Nemesis, p. 246.
190［327］二週間後 Two weeks later: Ibid., p. 247.
190［327］ライナー・ローターは Rainer Rother quote: Rother (English), p. 133. Corpses quote: LRMG, p. 908; LRM, p. 653.
191［328］ダンツィヒに到着 Hitler arrived in Danzig: LRM, pp. 259-60.
191［328］ジークフリート線 Siegfried Line: Ibid., p. 270.
191［330］フリッツ・ヒプラー Fritz Hippler: The film was called Westwall. Hull, p. 172; Moeller, Filmminister, p. 126.
191［330］ヒプラーによれば Hippler confirmed that Leni: Int. PW/Fritz Hippler, Berchtesgaden, August 18, 1971, tape 8, transcript p. 7.
192［331］レニの電報 telegram: Riefenstahl file, BDC, June 14, 1940.
193［332］「芸術的な冒険」 "artistic challenges": Riefenstahl, "Why I Am Filming Penthesilea, " pp. 192-215.
193［332］「ペンテジレーアと私は」 "Penthesilea and I": LR to Michel Delahaye, in Sarris, Interviews, p. 470.
193［332］レニが形容するその姿 Her description limns: LR, "Why I Am Filming Penthesilea, " p. 203.
193［332］ゴットフリート・ベン Gottfried Benn: Letter to Frank Maraun, May 11, 1936, cited in Remak, p. 163.
193［333］ベルギー王レオポルド King Leopold: Int. PW/Walter Traut, Munich, August 10, 1971, tape 5, transcript p. 14. LR had met Leopold during her Olympia tour. See LRM, pp. 231, 235.
193［333］シナリオはまだ一行も no screenplay: LR's "Why I Am Filming Penthesilea" is a long series of production notes dated August 7, 9, and 11, 1939. In them, LR states several times that no screenplay had yet been written.
194［333］クライスト協会 Kleist Society: Kleist Gesellschaft; int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, July 2-3, 1971, tape 2, transcript p. 20.
194［333］この歴史大作が She had envisioned action: From LR, "Why I Am Filming Penthesilea": at a gallop" (p. 207); "the earth" (p. 209); "on poles" (p. 208); "rough" (p. 212); "silver armor" (ibid.); "mastiffs" (p. 206); "the shining sun" (p. 198).
194 ［334］「視覚、音楽、リズム、建築の要素が」"the harmonious": Ibid., p. 197.
194［334］「フレスコ画」 "a fresco": Int. PW/LR, Munich, August 11, 1971, tape 17, side A, transcript p. 19; "film opera": LR, "Why I Am Filming Penthesilea," p. 202.
194［334］「どのシーンも」 "not a single scene": LR, ibid., p. 201.
194［334］「悪魔的なものと古典的なもの」 "demonical and the classical": Ibid.
194［334］「美の恍惚」 "ecstasy of beauty": Ibid.
194［334］「太腿、腕、首」 "Every thigh": Ibid.
194［334］同業者の一人によれば A colleague remembered: Isabella Ploberger Schlichting, who was her art director on Tiefland. Int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, July 2, 1971: "always working," tape 2, transcript p. 20; "She wasn't so," tape 2, transcript p. 18.
195［335］「もうそれほど」 "no longer felt":LRM,p. 261.
195［335］映画の権利 film rights: See Chapter 10. Though LR had purchased them in the mid-1930s, she would have assigned them to Terra had the film been made. LR mentions, perhaps not irrelevantly, that Lloyd's of London covered Terra's losses when the picture was abandoned. In LRM (p. 156), her tone is grateful; in LRMG (p. 220), it seems grudging.
195［335］ゴヤやエル・グレコ Goya and E1 Greco: LRMG, p. 355.
195［335］ウィーン歌劇場の公演で Vienna command performance: Hamann, p. 64.
195［335］トラウトはトビス映画社と Traut deal with Tobis: Int. PW/LR, Munich, August 11, 1971, tape 17, side A, transcript 4, p. 14.
195［335］マルティン・ボルマン Martin Bormann: The paper trail linking Bormann to Tiefland is broad and detailed. A representative example is Bormann's letter to the economics ministry of August 2, 1942, in which he writes: "Riefenstahl Film GmbH was founded with the special support of the Fuhrer, and the Fuhrer has instructed that the costs of the Tiefland film... be borne from the funds managed by me." Letter cited by Rother (English), p. 208, from BA R 43/II 810b, p. 81.
195［335］トビス映画社の覚書 Tobis memorandum: The memorandum notes that payments will be "schwartz, " quoted from Enzensberger.
195［336］トビス映画社は一五パーセント film right and percentages: Memo on "Acquisition of Film Rights" from propaganda ministry (Hinkle), March 9, 1944, LR file, BDC.
195［336］リーフェンシュタール暖房水道工事株式会社 Alfred Riefenstahl firm: Lenssen, p. 86, citing BA R 3/1609, Bl. 33-35.
196［336］『騎乗の楽園』 Paradise: The title in German is untranslatable ("The Greatest Happiness in the World on Horseback") but alludes to a quotation from Friedrich von Bodenstedt in which happmess is rendered by the German for "Paradrse"; hence, "Paradise on Horseback."
196［337］いつまでも不平をもらした Leni's complaints: Int. PW/LR, Munich, August 8, 1971, tape 16a, side A, transcript p. 12 (unsigned by LR). In late life, LR was vitriolic about Fanck. For the interview cited here, she refused to sign the transcript (though the tape exists). Fanck was still living at the time, and LR was furious that Peggy Wallace had interviewed him (transcript p. 11). (See Chapter 18.)
196［337］ファンクに勧めたのだった Fanck's villa and Speer: Trimborn, pp. 345-47. Trimborn asserts that LR urged Speer in this matter, though the evidence amounts only to Speer's letter informing her of his action.
196［337］レニの計画した複合スタジオ planning for Leni's studio: Rother (English), p. 102.
196［338］ウーフィの発足 the creation of Ufi: Moeller, Filmminister, pp. 93-96; Beyer, p. 25.
196［338］個人会社はわずか三社 three private companies: Int. PW/Dr. Walter Muller-Goerne, Munich, August 14, 1971, tape 21, transcript p. 1. Muller-Goerne was a lawyer in the Reich Film Chamber and later legal consultant to Ufi. He was in charge of the liquidation of Olympia-Film GmbH in 1942.
197［338］「ほかに誰もいなかった」 "No one else" Int. PW/Fritz Hippler, Berchtesgaden, August 18, 1971, tape 8, transcript p. 7.
197［339］一九三四年のシナリオ script of 1934: Who wrote that script is uncertain. In LRMG (p. 355; omitted from LRM), she mentions a script by Richard Billinger, but it is unclear if she is referring to 1934 or 1940. Her mention of director Frank Wisbar (Wysbar) in this connection suggests the earlier date, as Wisbar was by then in the United States.
197［339］ハラルト・ラインル Harald Reinl: Int. PW/Harald Reinl, Munich, August 10, 1971, tape 5, transcript p. 10. Reinl confirmed that the Kitzbtihel meeting with LR was "accidental."
198［340］「これこそペドロだ」 "This is Pedro" and Eichberger: LRM,pp. 262ff.
198［341］兵隊をフル装備で整列させ Troops in formation: Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, no. 43, 1940, cited "mountain troopers," a charge reprinted in Revue. May 1, 1949, which occasioned the libel suit LR brought after the war (see Chapter 15); see Prozessakte (Urteil) des Amtsgerichtes Munchen, November 30, 1949, p. 12.
198［341］「埃まみれ」 "dusty": Int. PW/AF, Freiburg, July 23, 1971, tape 9, transcript p. 10.
198［341］「おとぎ話に通じる」 "fairy tale ": Int. PW/Harald Reinl, Munich, August 10, 1971, tape 5, transcript p. 14.
198［341］アグファに ordering from Agfa: Int. PW/LR, Munich, August 6, 1971, tape 14, side B, transcript p. 3
198［341］アルベルト・ベニツ Albert Benitz as lover: Int. PW/Andrew Marton, Los Angeles, December 14, 1970, tape 29, transcript p. 11.
198［341］シナリオをゲッベルスに見せる showed her script to Goebbels: "Difficulties" and "I won't" are from March 30, 1940, Tagebucher, part 1, vol. 7, p. 371; "first rate" is dated April 2, 1940, Tagebucher, part 1, vol. 8, p. 31.
199［342］「レニ・リーフェンシュタールはスペインへは」 "Leni Riefenstahl may not": JG, April 4, 1940, Tagebucher, part 1, vol. 8, p. 34
200［343］セットを作りなおすための費用は cost of reconstruction: LRM, p. 265. On the same page, LR refers to "preliminary contracts for twelve billion dollars" at Tobis, which is a mistranslation of LRMG, p. 360, and should read "twelve million marks." The reference is to exhibition guarantees and is unverified.
200［344］彼は余白に Fanck on script: Int. PW/AF, Freiburg, July 23, 1971, tape 9, side A, transcript p. 9.
200［344］「がっかりした」「二つのテイク以外は」 "except for" and "aghast": LRM, p. 267. Fanck's claim re the dog: int. PW/AF, Freiburg, July 23, 1971, tape 9, side A, transcript p. 10.
200［344］レンズや焦点距離 Fanck and lenses: Int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, tape 2, transcript pp. 4-6.
201［345］会話に耳を傾けた Fanck remembered: "And Leni said": Int. PW/AF, Freiburg, July 23, 1971, tape 9, side A, transcript p. 11.
201［345］「やがて冬になったが」 "Then the winter": Int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, tape 2, transcript p. 6.
201［345］ゲッベルスに見せられるだけの give Goebbels a preview: Tagebucher, part 1, vol. 9, p. 37.
201［346］マティアス・ヴィーマン Mathias Wieman: Kreimeier, p. 290. State actor was an honor bestowed by the Nazi Party.
201［346］「スペイン風味」 "Spanish flavor": LRM, p. 266.
202［348］「反社会的」 "asocial": Thurner, p. 9.
202［348］公式なジプシー対策 Himmler policy: Evans, The Third Reich in Power, p. 526.
202［348］逮捕令 arrest decree: Thurner, p. 13.
202［348］断種政策 Sterilization: Ibid.
202［348］「最終的解決」 "The final solution": Evans, Third Reich in Power, p. 527, the wording is from the decree of December 1938.
202［349］「ロケハンをしている」 "location hunting": LRM, p. 267. As noted, principal photography in the Dolomites had begun during reconstruction of the sets in Krun.
202［349］何人かのジプシーは Gypsy testimony: Rosa Winter quoted in Knopp, p. 195. Reinhardt from Enzensberger, Triumph des Vergessens, cited in Kinkel. p. 230.
203［349］「粗末な小屋」 "prirnitive huts": Bohmer, "Ehemals 'Geheimes' Dokument, erstellt von Lagerleiter Bohmer, uber die Umsiedlung der Zigeuner nach Polen," July 5, 1940. This and subsequent documents (hereafter "Gladitz Files") were made availab]e to me by Eric Rentschler, together with other documents relating to the two postwar trials involving LR, the Gypsies of Tiefland and the later suit LR brought against filmmaker Nina Gladitz .
203［350］敷地は description of camp: Ibid.
203［350］視察にきたザルツブルク警察の委員 police commission report: Ibid.
203［350］契約書には contract terms: Gladitz Files.
203［351］住まいは納屋か厩舎 housing provided in barns: LRM, p. 359\ According to LR, local residents would not house the Gypsies elsewhere because of their reputation as thieves.
203 numbers of extras: An initial group of four was requisitioned but returned to Maxglan without explanation. An additional nineteen were subsequently requisitioned, including two of those originally selected and returned, for an apparent total of twenty-one. A final letter regarding the Gypsies' behavior in Krun, however, cites fifteen children and eight adults, for the total of twenty-three. Gladitz Files.
204［351］マルツァーンから呼び寄せた Marzahn requisition date: Rosenberg, p. 142; Gilsenbach, p. 167; also Enzensberger, Tageszeitung, March 5, 1985.
204［351］シャルロッテ・ローゼンベルク Charlotte Rosenberg: Rosenberg, p. 142.
204［351］報酬は payment of fees in Berlin: Gilsenbach, p. 167; Thurner, p. 18.
204［351］「社会福祉の養護施設」 "welfare ... camp": Abend, November 24, 1949 (clip n. p.), asserting that LR made the claim during her trial against Revue in 1949.
204［351］「ペット」 "darlings": LRMG, p. 361.
204［352］自慢気に話した LR pleased: Gladitz Files.
204［352］ラインハルトの十四歳の妹アントニエ Antonie Reinhardt: From Bohmer's testimony in Gladitz Files; Enzensberger, p. 16.
204［352］ラインハルト一家 Reinhardt family: Enzensberger, p. 14; Thurner, p. 148.
204［352］収容所の規則 Camp regulations: Gladitz Files.
205［352］ヨーゼフ・ラインハルトによると Josef Reinhardt on Gypsy fate: In Enzensberger, p. 16.
205［354］「戦後、ほぼ全員と再会した」 "We saw" LRM, p. 267; "nothing happened": Der Spiegel, August 16, 2002, p. 32.
205［356］「どんな疑いや不安」 "No doubts": LR in Enzensberger p. 17.
205［356］毒にも薬にもならないコメント generic statement of regret: Der Spiegel, August 16, 2002, p. 32.
14 一つの時代の終わり CHAPTER FOURTEEN: GOODBYE TO ALL THAT
206［削除］ AH to LR epigraph: LRM, p. 271.
206［357］「白いバラ」のリーフレットよりWhite Rose" epigraph: From leaflet 2, Fall 1942.
206［357］「スペイン一の大農場」 "largest finca" and "soft spot": LRM, p. 291.
206［358］「中国の壁」 "Chinese wall": Hugh Trevor-Roper, in Sereny, "Children," p. 79.
206 a histonan: Fest, Face, p. 194.
207［358］ボルマンとリーフェンシュタール映画社 Bormann on LR Film GmbH: Bormann to Reichsminister Lammers, August 2, 1943, BA R 43/II 810b, p. 81. Citation is after Rother (English), pp. 112-13.
207［358］「このボルマンという男」 "This Bormann": U. S. Army Intelligence Report, p. 37. Full sourcing: "Ft. Meade documents, CIC Report, Ref. No. PWB/SAIC/3--PWB CPT HQ 7th Army, German Intelligence Section, Special Interrogation Series #3, dated May 30th, 1945," pp. 490Q-490T, IfZ, Munich (hereafter U.S. Army).
207［358］「じかに連絡できる」 "direct access": Bernhard Minetti makes the claim in Erinnerungen eines Schauspielers, cited by Trimborn, p. 323.
207［358］ラーベナルト Rabenalt: Letter to Deputy Parbel of the Reichsfilmkammer from Herr Teichs at Terra Film, June 23, 1944. The film was titled Wir beide liebten Katharina ( We Both Loved Katharina), and Terra claimed that LR had been informed almost a year earlier of the signed Benitz commitment. Riefenstahl file, BDC. (Teichs's letter notes that Benitz and Rabenalt had made an entire picture together during one of Benitz's long periods of inactivity on Tiefland.)
207［359］マックス・ヴィンクラー博士 Dr. Max Winkler: Letter LR to Winkler, June 18, 1944, BDC; also cited in Rother (English), p. 113, as BA R 109 111/16. Note that LR dealt directly with Winkler, who had already secured studio space in Prague for her use in August 1944, postponed until September.
207［359］「ぞくぞくするような」 "thrilling": LRM, p. 269.
207［359］「仕返し」 "revenge": Ibid. For the Siegfried Line film, see Chapter 13.
207［359］二本の歴史劇 two historical dramas: LR cites Ohm Kruger and Der alte und der junge Koning in LRMG, p. 364, but Rother ([English], p. 208, n. 20) notes that neither film was shot then or at Babelsberg.
207［359］ゲッベルスにぶつけると Goebbels dismissed her: Tagebucher, March 1, 1941, part 1, vol. 4, p. 521.
208［359］「リーフェンシュタールのいう妨害とは」 "The difficulties": Int. PW/Fritz Hippler, Berchtesgaden, Augnst 18, 1971, tape 8, transcript pp. 2-3, 9. "She had the protection of Hitler": p. 2.
208［359］「あまりにも腹が立って」 "I was so upset": LRM, p. 270.
208［360］「何よりもまず」 "I advised her urgently": JG, December 16, 1942. Tagebucker, part II (Diktate), vol. 6, p. 456.
208［360］「この惨憺たる仕事と無関係で」 "nothing to do with" and "already over five million": Ibid. No final cost figures are known. Kolberg was budgeted at 8.5 million reichsmarks, and Tiefland may have approached or even surpassed that.
208［361］テオドル・モレル博士 Dr. Theodor Morell: Hitler's personal physician treated LR without success on several different occasions during the war (LRM, pp. 271, 293).
209［362］「彼が見せ楽観的な態度」 "The optimism": LRM p. 271. AH was talking about film prints on metal so that the image would be permanent and nondegradable. He discussed the same idea with Goebbels, who mentioned it in his diaries.
209［362］それから五十年たっても fifty years later: LR gives a demonstration of Tiefland's lighting to Ray Muller in his documentary Wonderful, Horrible Llfe.
209［362］パプストに監督を頼んだとき She was dismayed that Pabst: LRM, p. 273.
209［362］ラーベナルト Rabenalt: LRM, p. 274.
209［363］プローベルガーによれば Ploberger told a more prosaic version: Int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, July 3, 1971, tape 18, transcript pp. 1-2.
210［364］一方、ペーター・ヤーコプは Peter Jacob, on the other hand: He was born Eugen Karl Jacob on December 30, 1909. Marriage certificate: Standesamt XIIIb, Berlin, Nr. 1331/1902.
210［364］役者になりたいという野心 he had acting ambitions: Collignon, p. 97. Ilse Riefenstahl Collignon mentions seeing him perform on the stage in Goethe's Gotz von Berlichingen.
210［364］プローベルガーによれば according to Ploberger: Int. PW/IPS. Alicante, Spain, July 3, 1971, tape 18, transcript p. p. 2-3.
210［365］「感情を傷つけられ」 "emotional suffering": LRM, p. 281.
211［365］「彼の言葉の一語一語にしがみつき」 "I clung": Ibid., p. 286.
211［365］「奇跡をもたらした」「あなたが私を」 "a miracle" and "you've made": Ibid.
211［366］二百人以上の緊急労働者 two hundred essential workers: The number is Ilse Riefenstahl's (Collignon, p. 126).
211［366］ハインツとイルゼは marriage of Heinz and Ilse: Ibid., pp. 68ff.
212［366］結婚の解消 "kaputt": Ibid., p. 108.
212［367］ハインツは召集令状を受け取り Heinz received his notice: Ibid., p. 121.
212［367］東部戦線に送られた Heinz's induction and assignment: Ibid., pp. 119-21. Also: letter to Michael Stephan, Staatsarchiv Munchen, from Herr Kuhmayer, Deutsche Dienststelle, V2-677/345, October 14, 2003, detailing Heinz Riefenstahl's military service. See LRM, p. 296, for LR's account of his punishment and "death commando" assignments.
212［367］「闇市で肉を買い」 "buying meat": LRM, p. 289.
212［367］「子供を手放せなかった」 "whom he adored": Ibid., p. 296.
212［367］「親密だった」突撃隊員が、子供の養育権を "was friendly" and custody threat: Ibid., p. 296. LR names "SS General Wolff " here, but he was promoted to general only later (see below). The point is important, for LR claims to have letters from him, which, if they'exist, would be unlikely to claim a rank he would attain only in the future.
212［367］カール・ヴォルフ Karl Wolff: Wolff had been "Himmler s chief adjutant" (Kershaw, Nemesis, p. 149). He was an SS general and named military governor of Italy in 1943. He negotiated with Allen Dulles of the OSS for peace in Italy with the Allies though forbidden to do so by Hitler. Wheal and Shaw, p. 306; Kershaw, Nemesis, p. 834.
212［367］ヴォルフは一九三四年にハインツの Wolff tried to have Heinz recalled: Collignon, pp. 119-21. On p. 125, Collignon claims Wolff tried to get Heinz recalled from duty in the summer of 1944, just before Heinz was killed.
212［367］子の養育権 custody agreement: Ibid., pp. 112-13. Alimony: Ibid., p. 117.
212［368］「上からのお達し」 "on high": Ibid., pp. 114-15.
212［368］レニがシュペーアかボルマン divorce and LR's use of infiuence: See Collignon, pp. I08-15; Speer on Bormann: p. 108; further to Speer: p. 115.
213［368］「屠場に牽かれてゆく子羊のような」 "like a lamb": Ibid., p. 116.
213［368］扶養料 alimony payments: Ibid.,p. 117.
213［368］人種恥辱罪 Heinz and Rassenschande: Ibid., pp. 115-21. It is significant that these charges were published when LR was still living. They were not contested. The woman remains nameless but may be someone Collignon elsewhere refers to as "Minnie N." See p. 78.
213 Heinz's induction: LR's version of denunciation by a treacherous "best friend" may have substance, but Collignon believed his accuser was his chauffeur, a dedicated National Socialist disgruntled by his use of official vehicles for after-hours joyrides (fueled by Leni's personal gasoline rations) and offended by a lavish party Heinz gave on the national day of mourning following the German surrender at Stalingrad. See p. 120.
213［369］シュペーアにハインツを助けてほしい Speer and Fanck: Letter, Reichsfilmintendant Dr. Bauer to Frl. Scheibner, Abteilung Film, Berlin, April 18, 1945. Fanck's exemption from combat is specifically laid to Speer.
213［369］シュペーアがいうには LR, Heinz, Speer: Lenssen, "Leben," p. 86, citing BA R 3/1609, Bl. 11.
213［369］ゲッベルスによる悪名高い「総力戦」の演説 Goebbels's speech: Stackelberg and Winkle, pp. 299-300.
213［369］「諸君らはいまも総統を信じているか」 "Is your trust" Crted here from Kershaw, Nemesis, p. 561; compare to Stackelberg and Winkle, pp. 299-300.
213［369］あらかじめ選別された聴衆 prescreened audience: Kershaw, Nemesis, p.561.
214［370］合いの手を二百回以上も " 'Ja' ": Kershaw in Nemesis, p. 562, citing Willi Boelcke's Wollt Ihr den Totalen Krieg?, p. 25.
214［370］ゲシュタポがハンス・ショルと the Gestapo arrested: The crime was termed "preparation to commit treason" (Scholl, p. 148).
214［370］「生命そのもの」 "life itself": Ibid., p. 37, "complicity," p. 79; "every people," p. 32.
214［370］「恐怖に満ちた結末でも」 "An end": From resistance leaflet 2, Fall 1942. After Stackelberg and Winkle, p. 304.
214［370］スペインへ行って LR on Spain: LRM,p. 290.
214［371］「好色漢のカリカチュア」 "a caricature": Goldensohn, p. 252.
214［371］「冷たい血が流れた」 "blood ran cold": LRM, p. 146.
214［371］『オリンピア』短縮版の内輪の上映会 Olympia screening: Rother (English), pp. 59-60.
214［371］ニュルンベルクでは喜んで彼の家に houseguest in Nuremberg: During the 1938 Nuremberg rally, she and mountam climber Anderl Heckmair stayed with Streicher (Heckmair, p. 78). Also cited in Salkeld, p. 191. Hans Ertl also noted Streicher's role as "Hausherr" during the making of Day of Freedom (Ertl, p. 200).
214［371］「絶対にいらしてください」 "You absolutely": The occasion was the Berlin premrere of Triumph of the Wlll from "Lieber Sturmer": Leserbriefe an das NS-Kampfblatt, 1924-1945, cited by Trimborn, p. 368.
215［371］シュトライヒャーは親しげな Streicher's letter: Streicher to LR, July 27, 1937, Riefenstahl file, BDC.
215［371］ゲシュタポの監視のもとでの noted by the Gestapo: A survrving document stamped "Gehelm " ("secret")
reported, "On 29 October 1943, Frau Leni Riefenstahl and her fiance, bearer of the Knight's Cross Major Jakob [sic], stayed in Nuremberg at the Hotel Deutscher Hof. She made immediate contact with the former gauleiter Julius Streicher [at his home] in Pleikershof and visited him there." Source: Institut fur Zeitgeschichte, Munich, ref. Microfilm MA 612, Rosenberg file 105, doc. no. 60, p. 831.
215［372］ニュルンベルクの絞首台で Streicher at Nuremberg: Conot, pp. 381-87. Prosecution quotes, from the International Military Tribunal transcripts of the trial, cited in Conot, pp. 384-85.
215［372］ゼービヒル Seebichl Haus: LRM, pp. 292-93. It is today a privately owned hotel.
215［372］キッチンには no kitchen: Int. SB/Lt. Gen. Milton H. Medenbach (ret.), Wayne, Pa., May 7, 2005.
215［372］プローベルガーやのちにはベルタ Ploberger and Bertha: Int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, July 2-3, 1971, tape 2, transcript pp. 17-18. It was then that Ploberger came to accept Bertha as Jewish.
216［373］「ネガ、ポジ」 "negatives": LRM, p. 292.
216［373］「巨大なサウンドステージ」 "enormous" and "stylized": Ibid., p. 297.
216［374］ペーター・ヤーコプ少佐と結婚した Leni married Jacob: Ibid.,p. 293.
216［374］結婚証明書 marriage license: Standesamt XIIlb, Berlin, Nr. 1331/1902.
217［374］一緒にベルヒテスガーデンへ with Speer to Berchtesgaden: Sereny; Speer, p. 450. The date was "a few days before July 20, 1944."
217［375］「ヒトラーの体が」 "I noticed": LRM, p. 294.
217［375］「忠誠と献身をもって」 "To my Fuhrer on his birthday": [ "Meinem Fuhrer zum Geburtstag in Treue und Verehrung"]. This unique portfolio of forty-four images from Hitler's personal library is in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division in Washington, D.C. Card #: 2005685824.
217［376］「将軍たち」 "officer clique": Kershaw, "Hitler Myth, " p. 215.
217［376］「やつらを絞首刑に」 "I want": Fest, Plotting, p. 296.
217［376］「総統と国民と」 "fur Fuhrer": Letter to Alfred Riefenstahl from Squadron Leader Captain Riggers, July 28, 1944. Source: Deutsche Dienststelle. The letter was addressed to the senior Riefenstahl's residence in the Adolf-Hitler-Strasse.
218［376］「ほんの一度だけでも」 "still cannot": LRM, p. 296.
218［376］「私は口をつぐんで」 "I held":Ibid.,p. 294.
218［378］ベルリンからキッツビューエルまで Bertha to Kitzbuhel: Ibid., p. 301.
218［378］レニの雇った家庭教師 governess hired by Leni: Her name was Lilo Albin (Collignon, pp. 127-29). LR's version of this episode--in LRM, p. 297--is misleading. LR claims to have been given custody of the children under the terms of Heinz's will, which would not be certified until November in Berlin. She further claimed that both children (whose ages she misstates) were in her care (only Eckart was) and that she traveled from Prague to Kitzbuhel immediately on learning of Ilse's visit there. This is not verifiable.
218［378］レニはベルリンに戻って Leni was back in Berlin: LRM, pp. 298-99.
219［379］「ばかげていて理解しがたい」 "absurd and inexplicable": Ibid., p. 299.
219［379］徴兵猶予の延長を願う手紙 demands for continued draft deferments: The letters are part of the LR file, BDC.
219［379］「波のまにまに」 "on a ship": LRM, p. 298.
219［379］メラーノの病院 LR to hospital in Merano: Ibid.,p. 299.
219［380］「書類に署名しなければ」 "if you refuse": Collignon, pp. 168-69. Regarding the denunciation: Ilse was accused of defeatism on the grounds that she had remarked to Heinz at the time of the Russian invasion that this was "the beginning of the end." She was convinced that only LR could have known of the remark or seen to it that it turned up as evidence against her. Collignon, p. 108.
220［380］シュパンダウ Spandau: Ibid., p. 170.
220［381］推計千七百万人 seventeen million refugees: Fest cites Goebbels's own estimate, Speer, p. 248.
220［381］ガソリンとナチ党本部 gasoline and Brown House aid: LRM, pp. 302-3.
220［381］シュネーベルガーのユダヤ系の妻ギーゼラ Schneeberger and Gisela: Ibid., p. 303.
220［381］「ドイツ国民が必要とする」 "It is not necessary": In Fest, Speer, p. 250.
220［381］「この世の終わりのよう」 "like the end of the world": LRM, p. 290.
220［382］「数週間」をシュネーベルガー夫妻と Ploberger and "some weeks": Int. PW/IPS, Alicante, Spain, July 3, 1971, tape 1, transcript pp. 9-10. LRM does not mention the Schneebergers' daughter, though Ploberger stressed her presence.
220［382］総統が掩蔽壕で自殺した death of Hitler: LRM, pp. 304-5.
221［382］レニの回想によれば LR and the Schneebergers: Ibid., pp. 304-6.
15 ナチの同調者 CHAPTER FIFTEEN: PARIAH
222［383］デュラス Duras: The War: A Memoir (New York: Pantheon, 1986), p. 48.
222［削除］ "did all the talking": "Prozess gegen die Revue, " Revue, December 11, 1949.
222［383］「私のなかで世界が」 "A world had collapsed": LRM, p. 306.
222［383］「いったい何が」 "what could have changed": Ibid., p. 305.
222［383］「いかなる法的な」「慈悲にすがる」 "at the mercy" and "no legal protection": Ibid., p. 327.
222［384］「ヒトラーの死とともに」 "With the end of Hitler":Kershaw, "Hitler Myth," p.224.
222［384］「第三帝国はいまや」 "the Third Reich": Klemperer, May 11, 1945 p.904.
223［384］「最初の逃亡」 "my first escape": LRM, p. 307.
223［384］メデンバッハ中佐 Lt. Col. Milton H. Medenbach: LR incorrectly refers to him in LRM (p. 308) as major. Int. SB/Lt. Gen. Milton H. Medenbach (ret.), Wayne) Pa., May 7, 2005.
223［386］「ユダヤにまつわること」 "the Jewish element": Int. SB/Medenbach, as cited.
224［387］「ムッティ」「ジェーク」 "Mutti " and "Jake": This and other details and quotations re Seebichl Haus and Medenbach are from int. SB/Medenbach unless otherwise indicated. Medenbach's photograph alburn contains photographs of some of LR's visits from old friends, including Gustav Diessl, her costar in Piz Palu.
224［387］「大佐殿」 "Herr Colonel": Letter, Medenbach to SB, June 25, 2005.
224［387］「私は刑務所の」 "I found myself ": LRM, p. 309.
224［387］「両手で顔を覆った」 "I hid my face in my hands": LRM, p. 311. LR was, in this case, given something of a special dispensation. Ordinary local populations were required by American occupation forces to tour the camps in person and witness directly the horrors of which they claimed ignorance. Ration cards for foodstuffs and the like were issued only after completion of such tours, an experience LR was spared.
224［387］「絶望的にカメラを」 "gigantic eyes": Ibid., p. 313.
224［388］「理不尽な」 "incomprehensible" and Balazs: Ibid., p. 312.
224［388］「不在証明のためのユダヤ人」 "alibi Jews": Augstein, p. 75.
224［388］ナチとの関係について interrogation quotes: U.S. Army at IfZ, Munich.
225［388］「ある種の敬意」 "a certain admiration ... shared the responsibility": Ibid.
225［389］エルンスト・ラゲンドルフ Ernest Langendorf: Int. SB/Mrs. Ernest Langendorf, Munich, February 19, 2002.
226［390］ヒトラーの性的志向 Hitler's sexuality: LRM, pp. 314-15.
226［390］「私の知っていたヒトラー」 "Hitler, as I knew him": Ibid., p. 313. The untenable assumption that Hitler knew nothing of the Holocaust remains widespread.
226［391］「とどのつまり」 "After all": Ibid., p. 314.
226［391］利己的な分析 Privately, she continued: The citations here are from Friedrich Mainz (see below), but her use of "der Fuhrer" was well known. Enno Patalas observed to SB that she referred to his speeches in her films as "Fuhrerrede" (Fuhrer speeches), a word she apparently coined.
226［391］フリードリヒ・マインツ Friedrich Mainz: Int. PW/Friedrich Mainz, July 29, 1971, tape 10, transcript pp. 11-12.
227［393］ベトゥアール将軍 Bethouart affair: LRM, p. 328. Her former cameraman Richard Angst was among those who credited the affair (int. PW/Richard Angst, July 7) 1971, Berlin, tape 18) side B, transcript 18b, p. 5).
228［394］「いささかの貢献」 "done my bit": Schulberg, "Nazi Pin-Up Girl," p. 11.
228［394］シュールバーグは Schulberg citations: Ibid., pp. 9, 11ff.
228［395］銀行口座 bank accounts: LRM, pp. 328, 333.
229［396］二度と手にすることはなかった She would never see this money: Reichsmarks would be revalued on a ratio of ten to one as a result of the currency reform of June 21, 1948. According to this formula, the money would have amounted to thirty thousand deutsche marks, still a considerable sum.
229［396］会社の管財人 trustees of her firm: LRM, p. 328. LR accused Gisela Schneeberger of testifying that "my film equipment at Seebichl House consisted of personal gifts from Hitler," which was, strictly speaking, true. All of the equipment had been financed by Hitler's funds through Bormann, something LR never admitted.
229［396］「好ましからざる人物」 "undesilable": "Tiefland etwas verschollen," Der Spiegel, no. 40, August 29, 1949.
229［396］アルノルト・ファンク Arnold Fanck: LRM, p. 329.
229［397］「愛憎」の的 "love-hate": Ibid., p. 330. Her staff included cutter Emmy Steffen, secretary Minna Luck, and bookkeeper Willi Hapke.
229［397］「すさんだ環境」「耐えがたかった」 "intolerable" and "undignified": Ibid.
229［397］「精神的な拷問」 "mental torture": Ibid., p. 331. LR uses the word torture several times to describe her ordeal.
230［397］「慢性的な不安状態」「迫害への強迫観念」 "chronic paranoia": Ibid., p. 327; "persecution mania": Rother (English), p. 209.
230［397］「ニンフォマニア」 "a nymphomania ": Sereny German Trauma, p. 240.
230［397］「生涯の仕事が全部」 "My life's work": LRM, p. 333.
230［398］「精神病院」 "insane asylum": Ibid., pp. 333-34.
230［398］「フランス軍の上層部の命令」 "at the orders": Ibid., p. 334.
230［398］個人経営の精神科クリニックで a live-in patient: The alternate version referring to the clinic of Professor Beringer appears in an interview in the Mannheimer Morgen of January 16, 1954 (Rother [English], pp. 209-10, n. 3). As Rother notes, it is impossible to determine which verslon is true though the extremely vague language ("I have retained very little about this black episode": LRM, p. 334) would suggest the 1954 version is more credible.
230［398］ジャン＝ピエール・デマレ Jean-Pierre Desmarais: LRM, pp. 335-38; had been born a Jew: Kretzmer, p. 2.
230［399］「自由を取り戻すためなら」 "I would have signed" and "I don t care": Ibid., p. 337.
230［399］ロンドンのジャーナリスト London journalist: See Kretzmer, p. 2. Here she acknowledges Desmarais was Jewish, though she could not recall his name. After prodding, she located his surname in an old address book but could not remember his first name. Kretzmer: "This may, of course, be the sign of weak memory. It is also, surely, a sign of a particularly weak capacity for human gratitude."
231［399］「上からの命令で」 "by orders from above": LRM, p. 338.
231［399］この本が引き起こしたセンセーション diary generated headlines: Ibid.
231［400］ヒトラーの言葉も盛んに Hitler's quoted remarks: Ibid., pp. 351-52.
231［400］「犯罪的」「映画監督としての」 "criminal" and "impossible for me": Ibid., p. 352.
231［400］「完全なでっちあげ」 "gross fabrication": Ibid., p. 339.
231［400］デマレはカナダに逃れ Desmarais beat a hasty retreat: He resettled in Montreal, where he was active in French-speaking commercial circles. In LRMG (pp. 486-88), he makes one more attempt to gain control of Tiefland.
231［400］ルイス・トレンカー Luis Trenker: LRM, p. 348.
232［401］エヴァ・ブラウンの家族 Eva Braun's family: Ibid., p. 349. LR claimed, "I had never even seen Eva Braun," which seems unlikely considering LR's many visits to the Berghof, where Braun lived openly as its mistress. The point was legally irrelevant, in any case.
232［401］「職業的には有能だが」 "professionally qualified": Gritschneder adopted the phrase as the title of his memoir.
232［401］グリッチェニーダー博士の言葉 Gritschneder citations: Gritschneder, Forum, transcript p. 3.
232［401］出版差止め令をとりつけた obtained an injunction: The date was September 10, 1948, and the publication enjoined was Wochenend, a magazine published in Nuremberg.
232［401］「五十件分以上の」 "over fifty" and "the lawyer": LRM, p. 349.
232［402］ヴィリンゲンの裁判所 Villingen hearing LRM (p. 352) misstates the date as December 1948. It was November 5, 1948. Riefenstahl file, BDC.
232［402］「後継者と先任者が」 "so many of the successors": Polgar. He wrote: "so viele von diesen Nachfolgern mit ihren Vorgangern identisch sind."
232［402］近年の研究によれば recent study: Edith Raim, lecture, Staatlichen Archive Bayerns, Munich, January 11, 2005.
233［402］「書類は皆無である」 "Not a single": LRM, pp. 353-54.
233［402］「政治的に有罪」 "political incrimination": Ibid., p. 352 This first verdict came on December 1, 1948. The hearing dated January 13, 1950, concluded with the extraordinary statement that, regarding evidence presented against LR, "It is not the business of this chamber to prove how much is true or false." BDC.
233［403］新聞の社説や投書欄 letter and editorial writers: Notable among the letters was one from cameraman Emil Schunemann regarding his contretemps with her at the time of Triumph of the Will (see Chapter 10) in Die Welt on January 25, 1949. He claimed that her villa in Dahlem was the gift of Hitler and that she would not have hesitated to report him to the Gestapo had he not had his own protectors.
233［404］写真を撮った女性 the woman who had taken: Her name was Erika Schmachtenberger.
234［404］新たな情報源の一人 One news source: The Suddeutsche-Zeitung: "Ich bekam keine Reichsmrttel, " Novernber 24, 1949.
234［404］「借りているだけ」 "only a loan": Clip, Sozialdemocrat, November 29, 1949.
234［404］「喜んで逃亡した」 "glad to escape": "Prozess gegen die Revue, " Revue, December 11, 1949.
234［404］ジプシーを証人として Gypsy testimony: "Like dogs" is from the Hamburger Abendblatt and "better cared for" is from the Munchner Merkur, both cited in Revue, "Prozess gegen die Revue, " December 11, 1949.
234［405］「激しい」「言葉の応酬」 "fierce" and "duels": Hamburger Abendblatt, November 24, 1949, and Sozialdemocrat, November 29, 1949.
234［405］「悪魔のお抱え映画監督」 "devil's director": "Regisseurin des Teufels," Hamburger Freie-Press, November 24, 1949.
234［405］「カーニバル」 "carnival": Dusseldorf's Mittag, crted in "Prozess gegen die Revue, " Revue, December 11, 1949.
234［405］「笑いや叫び」 "laughter": Ibid.
234［405］「鼻息荒く」 "wildly": "Ich bekam ...," Suddeutsche-Zeitung, Munich, November 24, 1949.
234［406］「証言をさえぎり」 "never allowed": Die Welt, cited in Rother (English) p. 211, n. 12.
234［406］「じつによくしゃべった」 "did all the talking : Prozess gegen die Revue," Revue, December 11, 1949.
234［406］「ヒトラーの名前を」 "When she spoke": Polgar.
235 semantic technicality: The reasoning would resurface in the Nina Gladitz trial yet to come, but even LR cites this ruling, which depended on labeling (LRM, p. 338).
235［407］アルフレート・ポルガー Alfred Polgar: "Die tragische Farce der Entnazifizierunq," Der Weg, July 28, 1950, cited in Rother (English), p. 126, as from Aufbau, December 30, 1949, p. 5 (sources identical). Polgar had recently returned to Vienna from wartime self-exile in the United States and was in Munich to attend the trial.
235［407］「同調者」 "fellow traveler": Rlefenstahl file, BDC. The five possible classifications were: Hauptschuldige (major offender guilty of crimes), Belastete (directly involved as activist, militarist, war profiteer), Minderbelastete (1esser offender not known to have committed crimes), Mitlaufer (fellow traveler through sympathies or opportunism), and Entlastete (innocent and anti-Nazi). Wheal and Shaw, p. 70.
235［407］歴史家も Historians agree: Kershaw in Nemesis, p. 838.
235［407］ヘルムート・キンドラー Helmut Kindler and Revue: April 19, 1952, pp. 6-7, here cited from Rother (English), p. 127.
236［407］「すぐその日に」 "gave up" : LRM, p. 385.
236［407］シュタッブニング Stubbening: The blackmailer LR referred to went by "Freitag." Whether he was named Stubbening and called himself Freitag or vice versa or whether there were two separate individuals is unknown. See "Ein Erpresser schoB sich daneben," Stern, May 11, 1952, p. 10. See also Julia Encke, "Amateurfotografen als Augenzeugen: Bilder aus der Dunkelkammer des Krieges," Suddeutsche-Zeitung, no. 289, December 14-15, 2002, p. 16, "Literatur."
236［409］ハンブルクの資料センター document center in Hamburg: "Ein Erpresser schoB sich daneben," Stern, May 11, 1952. Leni produced eyewitnesses: "Ein Erpresser ... " in Stern, May 11, 1952. LRM, p. 387.
236［409］東独国家機密警察 East German State Security Police: The author obtained copies of these photographs pursuant to a request of the East German Riefenstahl file.
236［409］判事が下した裁定 court's decision: LRM, p. 387.
237［409］「倫理面での損害」 "moral damage" and "millions": Ibid., p. 395
237［409］示談で片付いた settlement with Kindler: Ibid.
237［409］暴露しようとして Kindler's expose: Kindler had already demonstrated in the first Revue trial that Bormann had supplied funds for the picture. Further revelations of this sort threatened property judgments that would not have been to LR's advantage.
16 生存者 CHAPTER SIXTEEN: SURVIVOR
238［削除］ "No one needs to know": Letter, LR to KK, from Munich, November 18, 1958.
238［削除］ "No lie was too big": LRM, p. 397
238［411］「つまるところ」 "She is , after all": Int. PW/FM, Munich, July 29, 1971, tape 10, transcript p. 25.
238［411］「私のような人間は」 "anyone like me":"Leni will wiederkommen," Westfalenpost, Hagen, March 16, 1951.
238［411］「民主主義にもとづいた」 "to promote": Kreimeier, p. 370.
239［413］「ポケットは外国からの契約書で」 "pockets were full": Polgar. For unknown reasons, she specifically mentioned Argentina and Spain.
239［413］カメラマンのリヒャルト・アングスト cameraman Richard Angst: Int. PW/Richard Angst, Provinz, July 7, 1971, tape 18, side B, transcript p. 5. Angst was offended by reports of LR's affair with General Bethouart.
239［413］フリードリヒ・マインツ Friedrich Mainz: Int. PW/FM, Munich, July 29, 1971, tape 10, transcript p. 24.
239［413］「レニは想像もつかないことに」 "She spent millions": Ibid., p. 1.
240［414］「とても自己中心的だった」 "very egocentric": Ibid., pp. 23-24.
240［414］「彼女にはつねに敵がいたが」 "She always had": Ibid., p. 23. "She mixes": Ibid., p. 1. "If you need": Ibid., pp. 24-25.
240［414］マインツはレニへの Mainz on LR and AH: Ibid., p. 2. Mainz's interview conveys appreciative delight in stories of LR's love affairs.
240［414］「私は弁護士に訊いてみた」 "I asked my lawyer": Ibid., p. 23. Mainz did not detail LR's debt to him, but she refers to him in LRM (p. 451) as "my chief creditor."
240［414］ヴァルディ・トラウト Waldi Traut: Int. PW/Walter Traut, Munich, August 10, 1971, tape 6, transcript pp. 7-8.
240［415］アルバースは「あの女」が Hans Albers and "that woman": LRM, p. 370. LR tars Albers here as one of Hitler's favorite actors, which may have been true with pictures such as Munchhausen, though Albers was known to have distanced himself from the party during the Third Reich.
240［415］「彼女がいまでも」 "she still mourned": Letter, HS to Glenn Infield 1975. Infield, p. 234.
240［415］「私が彼女と一緒に」 "I made pictures": Int. PW/HS, Munich, August 13, 1971, tape 12, transcript p. 12.
241［416］「いくら大金を積まれても」 "unable to sacrifice": LRM, p. 368.
241［416］「私自身の運命」 "my own destiny": Michel Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 456.
241［416］缶に入ったフィルム canisters of film: LRM, p. 371. There is a discrepancy here. In her memoirs, LR states at one point that the negative to The Blue Light was stored in Berlin, in another place that it was near Kitzbuhel.
241［416］ランチュナー兄弟 Lantschner brothers: Screenwriter Willy Clever was hired by LR to write the script. "Neuer Millionen-Sportfilm," 8 Uhr-Blatt, Nuremberg, July 16, 1952.
241［416］『赤い悪魔』 Red Devils plotting: Hinton, 3rd ed., pp. 94-96.
241［417］「かなりグロテスク」 "grotesque": Rother (English), p. 140.
242［417］ハラルト・ラインル Harald Reinl: Reinl later claimed that he had no part in the writing of the script, which was done entirely by Bartsch. Int. PW/Harald Reinl, Munich, August 10, 1971, tape 5, transcript p. 14. Bartsch had earlier worked for LR on a short equestrian film made from Olympics footage.
242［417］髪をブロンドに染め blond in Italy: "Leni Riefenstahl filmt Incognito," Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, October 5, 1950.
242［418］「これは一瞬で」 "It was not made": Cited in Rother (English), p. 137.
242［418］「リアリズムの救済」 "the redemption": See Chapter 6.
242［419］プレスリリース Press releases: Cited in Rentschler, Ministry, p. 31.
242［419］「輝くばかりの」 "dazzling gala" : LRM, p. 384.
243［420］「党の資金が」 "no Party funds": LRM, p. 393; and LRMG, p. 518.
243［420］部分的とはいえ partial documentation: It consisted mainly of the articles of incorporation of her firm, which listed herself and Heinz as principals. It was, as indicated, a sham. There was, of course, no copyright on the film itself, as it was unfinished.
244［421］「目くるめくような」「数え切れないほどの」 "dazzlingly" and "countless": LRM, p. 397.
244［421］「時代遅れ」 "out of date": Ibid.
244［421］「気分が悪く」 "quite sick": Ibid.
244［421］「客観的」 "objective": Ibid.
244［421］「彼女のダンスシーンを観た」 "When one sees": Ulrich Seelmann-Eggebert in Mannheimer Morgen, cited in Rother (English), p. 212.
244［421］堅い映画雑誌は serious film journal: Der neue Film, February 22, 1954, cited in Rother (English), p. 138.
244［421］「全部嘘っぱちだ」 "No lie" LRM) p. 397.
244［422］「事実無根」 "inconsistent": Ibid., p. 398.
244［422］「大成功」 "roaring success": Ibid.
245［423］大量のフィルムをひそかにドイツ国立文書館に archival footage: Int. SB/Stefan Drossler, Munich, January 25, 2006. According to Drossler, sources at the Bundesarchiv acknowledge the existence of this footage but claim there is nothing "of interest" in it.
245［423］「打倒暴君」の象徴 Tiefland as "tyrannicide": This is the view of Helma Sanders-Brahms in "Tyrannenmord," pp. 173-76; and Robert von Dassanowsky in "Wherever You May Run, You Cannot Escape Him': Leni Riefenstahl's Self-Reflection and Romantic Transcendence of Nazism in Tiefland."
245［424］「ブリューゲルに」「カメラの詩情」 "intensity" and "poetry": LRM, p. 399.
245［424］「深刻な懸念」 "very serious reservations": Ibid.
246［424］ヴィシー政府に協力 Cocteau as collaborator: He wrote enthusiastically about Breker when the sculptor's works were exhibited in Nazi-occupied Paris in 1943. See Kaplan, p. 278, n. 196.
246［424］アメリカの『地上より永遠に』 From Here to Eternity from the United States: Fred Zinnemann, who directed that picture, told SB that he first heard rumors about LR and Konskie during the 1954 Cannes festival, suggesting that LR's claims of political harassment were not unfounded.
246［424］コクトーはレニに Cocteau told Leni: LRM, p. 403.
246［424］「皮肉っぽく」 "satirical": Ibid.
246［424］ジャン・マレーを Cocteau on Marais: Ibid., p. 401.
246［424］「色彩とリズムと」 "symphony of colors": Ibid., p. 393.
246［424］「厚かましい嘘」 "bare-faced lie": Ibid., p. 402.
246［425］スペインのドキュメンタリー documentary about Spain: Sol y Sombra is in LRMG, p. 537. Bullfights: Feiden.
246［425］暗黒大陸 The Dark Continent: Udet: Int. SB/Hasso Felsing, April 1988; Morell had been a ship's doctor in Africa (Junge, p. 80); the cameraman was Kurt Neubert, in Culbert and Loiperdinger, Tag, p. 7.
247［426］クルト・ハウザー Kurt Heuser: Heuser had written screenplays for G. W. Pabst and Detlef Sierck before the latter went to America and changed his name to Douglas Sirk.
247［426］ドラマになりそうなシナリオ plot line: Unpublished film treatment "Afrikanisches Tagebuch, eine Filmdichtung uber Afrika gestaltet von Leni Riefenstahl." Kurt Kreuger, Beverly Hills, furnished a copy to SB, November 8, 2001.
247［426］大型動物のサファリ物語 big-game hunter: Hans Otto Meissner. His book was a popular hit of the period.
247［426］「この計画に夢中に」 "I was obsessed": LRM, p. 409.
247［426］『赤い悪魔』に興味をもつ人も reawaken interest in The Red Devils: All the LR correspondence of this period refers to Red Devils as an ongoing project.
247［427］トラウトが製作準備費として Traut investment: LRM (p. 418) cites the lower figure. However, in a handwritten letter from LR to KK from Rome on May 26, 1957, LR put Traut's direct investment at $75,000 plus a loan of a further $25,000 (expressed in U.S. dollars). Other friends of Traut later estimated his investment in the neighborhood of 500,000 marks, or around $125,000. See Hitchens, "Leni Riefenstahl Interviewed by Gordon Hitchens, " p. 144, where Heinz von Jaworsky claims Traut told him he had lost half a million marks on the picture.
247［427］サファリ会社と契約 safari firm investment: LRM, p. 418.
247［427］「文明という病」 "plague": LRVA, p. 20.
247［427］「うっとりしながらも」 "intoxicated": Ibid., p. 14.
247［427］「彼らは暖かな」 "They seemed": Ibid.
248［427］「風変わりなイメージ」 "vision of strangeness": LRM, p. 411. The drug image occurs also in LRVA, p. 14.
248［428］「新たな生命」 "new life": LRM, p. 411.
248［428］「ぜったいに大丈夫」 "I could uproot": Ibid., p. 416.
248［428］エルンスト・イェーガー Ernst Jager: LR's secretary noted Dr. Edwin Janss of the Investment Corporation and Jager as Hollywood contacts. Letter, LR's office to Kurt Kreuger, April 3, 1956.
248［428］パラマウント映画 Paramount: Letter, LR to KK, July 16, 1956. LR claimed that Paramount's exhibitors had expressed strong interest in the picture.
248［429］「完全なユダヤ人」 "fully Jewish": Letter, KK to LR in Munich, n.d. (circa August 1956).
248［429］「噂がどんな風に」 "you can imagine": Ibid.
248［429］「ヘレーネ・ヤーコプ」 Kreuger and "Helene Jacob": Int. SB/Kurt Kreuger, Beverly Hills, November 8, 2001. Also letter, LR to KK, July 16, 1956, and letter, KK to LR, August 1, 1956, in which KK protests that presenting the film as the work of "[Helene] Jacob" would violate his business practice of being "honest and direct." LR's lavyer for Stern Film reiterated in a letter to KK of August 8, 1956, that LR was prepared to use--outside Germany--the name "Helene Jacob" or no name at all in order to secure financing.
248［429］「私の正体など」 "No one needs": Letter, LR to KK, from Munich, November 18, 1958.
249［429］ユニバーサルは五万ドルを Universal figures: Letter from KK to Walter Traut in Munich, August 1, 1956. Hasso was Swedish, Lindfors was Swedish, and King was born in France.
249［430］イングリッド・バーグマンやキャサリン・ヘップバーン Bergman and Hepburn: Letter, LR to KK, July 16, 1956.
249［430］ユニバーサルと契約を Universal's conditions and LR's response: Letter, Dr. Bayer of Stern to KK, August 9, 1956. Bayer was the lawyer for Stern Film.
249［431］「アフリカは私を受け入れた」 "Africa had": LRM, p. 411.
250［431］「近づきがたい」 "unapproachable": Ibid., p. 416.
250［432］「神経をやられて」 "nervous condition": Ibid., p. 432; tranquilizer injections: Ibid., p. 431; morphine: lbid., p. 433.
250［432］ユニバーサルからは Universal's remained: Letter, KK to Dr. Bayer and Traut, September 14, 1956, and letter, KK to LR, n.d. (circa same date).
250［432］「考えたのが間違いだった」 "been wrong" LRM, p. 427.
250［432］「マネジャーのユダヤ人」 "a Judas": Ibid., p. 432. This may have been a Herr Grunewald, who wrote an article critical of the production in Munich's Abend-Zeitung on July 10, 1957. LR answered in a letter to the editor on July 24 challenging his assertion that "the money gave out and we worked too little to get more." A letter from LR to KK from Munich on May 16, 1958, accuses the attorney Dr. Bayer, who was also involved with Gloria Film) of causing the film's collapse.
251 "financial death": Int. PW/Walter Traut, Munich August 10, 1971, tape 6, transcript p. 14.
251［433］トラウトはのちに Traut on LR: Ibid.
251［433］「彼女にはどんな可能性も許され」 "She had all": Ibid., transcript p. 7.
251［433］ユニバーサルは投資金額を Universal revised its potential investment: Letter, KK to LR in Munich, February 2, 1957. Other consulted correspondence dates from mid-January, including four cables from LR to KK.
251［434］ハリウッドの大手映画会社 The firm was MGM: Int. SB/KK, Beverly Hills, November 8, 2001. Also: Ietter, KK to LR in Munich, November 14, 1958, and LR to KK from Munich, November 18, 1958.
252［434］「天才がいかに自己表現するか」 "how a genius": Linder, p. 439.
252［435］ドイツの配給業者 German distributor: LRM, p. 402.
17 カムバック CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: COMEBACK
253［436］グリーソン Grierson: LRM, p. 446; TV Guide, London, February 11, 1960.
253［削除］ Mekas: Village Voice, November 7, 1974, p. 88.
253［436］「あそこには団体が」 "There must be": Int. PW/LR Munich, August 6, 1971, tape 14, transcript p. 6.
253［436］「アフリカにいるとき」 "When I am": Weigel, "Interview," p. 410.
254［437］ニューヨークでは Olympia in New York: New York Times, H.T.S. [Harry T. Smith], March 9, 1940, p. 19, and March 30, 1940, p. 11, both parts at the 86th Street Garden Theatre.
254［437］シーンをカットする cuts in Olympia: LRM, p. 434; "to make some money": Letter LR to KK Munich May 16, 1958.
254［437］「美学的に描かれた歴史」 "history": Vernon Young in Accent, Spring 1955, cited in Salkeld, p. 237.
254［438］モンタギューは公の場で Montagu publicly denounced: Cited in Salkeld, p. 239.
254［438］「たとえ悪魔でさえ」 "Satan himself ": Ibid., p. 238.
254［438］ジョン・グリーソン John Grierson: LRM, pp. 446-47; TV Guide, London, February 11, 1960.
255［439］「望まれていない」 "did not care": LRM, p. 445.
255［439］「それ相応の処置」 "appropriate": Interoffice Memo, BFI, February 25, 1960, signed "EHL." The solicitors were H. A. Crowe & Co. in London. The copyright claim was inaccurate. See below.
255［439］『青の光』を『赤い靴』のようなスタイルでリメイク rights to remake The Blue Light: LRM, p. 443.
255［439］「影響力をもつある人物」 "an influential": Ibid., p. 440.
255［439］舞台では制約が多い ballet limitations: LR wrote her extensive thoughts about the ballet version in an unpublished document dated October 29, 1958. PW, document T78.
255［440］仮の差し止め令 temporary injunction: LR routinely overstated the results of her lawsuits (see below). Here she attempted to have the book withdrawn, but Parisian courts settled for retraction of the claim: "Leni Riefenstahl gewinnt ProzeB, " Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, December 3, 1960. Also, "Entscheidung gegen Leni Riefenstahl," Tagesspiegel (Berlin), March 11, 1961.
256［441］ロンドンで弁護士団を British solicitor: LRM, p. 448.
256［441］「事実無根」 "groundless": "Leni Riefenstahl zieht Klage gegen Daily Mirror zuruck," Deutsche Zeitung, October 25, 1960; Der Spiegel, November 16, 1960.
256［441］『イブニング・スタンダード』 Evening Standard: December 13, 1960, cited in Salkeld, pp. 239-40. Also, Bild am Sontag, December 25, 1960.
256［441］『イブニング・スタンダード』によれば The Standard remarked: Cited in Salkeld, p. 240.
256［442］「世界中のどこでも」 "Everywhere else": London Sunday Dispatch, December 18, 1960, cited in Salkeld, p. 240.
256［442］「ナチ突撃隊員に囲まれたオフィーリア」 "this Ophelia": Spectator, February 10, 1961, cited in Salkeld, p. 242.
256［442］「子の拒絶は遅すぎた」 "The denials": Pem., "Leni Riefenstahl weinte nur," Der Kurier (West Berlin), December 12, 1960.
257［442］ポール・ロータは Rotha quote: Film till Now, p. 591.
257［442］使用料を払った paid her for footage: "Jedoch ihr Wille triumphierte nicht," Der Kurier (West Berlin), December 6, 1962. LR acknowledged receiving payment for footage used in the Rotha film via Walter Koppel, a German film distributor, though she claimed the footage was taken from Olympia (letter, LR to Kevin Brownlow, January 20, 1967).
257［443］慈善活動に寄付した charity donation: LRM, p. 451.
257［443］レニは部下の編集係と秘書を Leni in movie theater: "Ihr Kampf," Der Spiegel, no. 3, January 11,1961. Length: In LRM, the claim of 2,000 feet is made on p. 567. The actual length was 337.31 meters, or a bit more than 1,100 feet, roughly ten or eleven minutes of screen time.
257［443］『わが闘争』が「少なくとも」 "Mein Kampf was": LRM, p. 451. Sum and profits: Rother (English), p. 149.
257［443］「財政面で深刻な」 "my financral problems": LRM, p. 501.
257［443］ミネルバ Minerva: Rother (English), p. 149, citing Dusseldorfer Nachrichten, December 10, 1960. Interestingly, Leiser gave interviews in which he referred to "the spoils of war," implying he got his footage from the American and French governments, though LRM charged that the footage came from East Germany, See "Ihr Kampf," Der Spiegel, no. 3, January 11, 1961.
257［443］ファンクには五百マルクを debt to Fanck: LRM, p. 451.
257［444］見出しが躍り Headlines: "Reward" is in Der Abend, December 10, 1960; "Dirty Money" is in Berlin's Morgenpost, December 11, 1960; "Ihr Kampf" is from Der Spiegel, January 11, 1961.
257［444］ベルリンの日刊紙 A Berlin daily: Berliner Morgenpost, December 11, 1960.
258［444］フランクフルトの新聞の社説 Frankfurt editorial: Frankfurter Rundshau, December 13, 1960, cited by Rother (English), as 1969, p. 150.
258［444］スウェーデンの新聞 a Swedish daily: Dagens Nyheter, cited in "Ihr Kampf," Der Spiegel. January 11, 1961.
258［444］すべての権利はトランジット社に copyright decision: December 29, 1966, verdict of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of Mainz v. Minerva. An appeal resulted in a final confirmation of the verdict on January 10, 1969 (Bundesgerichtshof file I ZR 48/67). Mainz was ordered to pay court costs, which he estimated at eighty thousand marks. LR refused to share these costs with him.
258［444］「不適切な裁定」に「愕然と」 "stunned" and "mrscarriage": LRM, pp. 567-69. In LRM, the latter phrase is translated as "a judicial error," though LR uses the term "Fehlurteil," better rendered as "miscarriage of justice" in English. LRMG, pp. 767ff.
258［445］アルノルト・レーター Arnold Raether: LRM reproduces the affidavit on p. 569. It is clear that Raether misunderstood Ufa's role in the film (Ufa paid a distribution advance but did not finance the picture). See Chapter 10.
258［445］著作権はすでにトランジット社に Olympia and Transit: The Olympia case came as a result of television presentations of the picture in West Germany and was settled in 1964. The Mainz v. Minerva ruling was handed down in 1966.
259［446］オリンピア映画社 Olympia Film Company and the Reich: See Chapter 11.
259［447］偽装組織 Transit finding: Rother (English), p. 154, and LRO, p. 242. The bracketed phrase replaces "LR and her brother" in the original; they were the only stockholders in Olympia-Film GmbH.
259［446］「三十年もたって」 "What kind of people": LRM, p. 500.
259 When confronted with the paper trail: See LRO, p. 244. See also LRM, p. 500, where LR claims that her lawyer "proved" that the tax dodge was real. No court accepted this argument.
259［446］「双方とも」 "Both parties pledge": Agreement of January 16, 1964, between Transit-Film GmbH and LR. Cited here from LRO, pp. 242-44. The fullest documentation of these legal issues can be found in Loiperdinger, Rituale, and in LRO.
259［447］「自称する」 "to describe herself ": BA R 109 I/2163, agreement of January 16, 1964, between LR and Transit, cited here from Rother (English), p. 217, n. 32.
259［447］国際オリンピック委員会が copyright to IOC: IOC newsletter, "Olympic Turn Around," July 15, 2005, p. 2. The sale occurred in December 2003 after five years of negotiation. LR's death may have cleared the way for the sale.
260［448］アメリカで新たに著作権を U.S. copyright: LRM, pp. 620-21.
260［448］ドイツの自由民主党 (FDP): Rother (English), p. 158.
260［448］上映差し止め dispatched emissaries: SB observed this at the Munich Film Museum with regard to The Blue Light in 2003.
260［448］「一貫した」 "systematic": LRM, p. 458, LRMG, p.619;"crawling about":LRM, p.454.
260［448］「誰も私が」 "nobodey knows": Letter, LR to Kevin Brownlow, from Davos, February 20,1967.
260［448］日本の起業家の Japanese entrepreneurs: LRM, pp. 455-58.
260［448］カントやクルップ Quandt and Krupp: Ibid., pp. 460-61.
260［449］エミー・ホワイトヘッド Emmy Whitehead: LRMG, pp. 624-26. The passages are cut from LRM.
260［449］ドイツ人の配給業者 German distributor: LRM, p. 461.
260［449］「アフリカに夢中」 "Africa crazy": Ibid., p. 462.
260［449］「いまだに開かれていない」 "the dark": Ibid.
261［449］「ロダンかミケランジェロの」 "like a sculpture": Ibid.
261［449］掲載されたその写真 The photograph had been published: It was also published in London's Weekly Illustrated in 1949, though LR almost certainly saw it in the Geographic. For Rodger: details from Naggar and from Peter Hamilton in Rodger, Village.
261［449］「無意識のうちに」 "subconsciously arranging": Naggar, p. 139.
261［450］「あれほど恐ろしい」 "so horrific": Ibid., p. 140.
261［450］「自分のなかに残る」 "get rid of the stench": Ibid., p. 149.
261［451］「親愛なるマダム」 "Dear Madam": Ibid., p. 190. See also p. 297, n. 17.
261［450］「そこにはなんの」 "there was no other": LRM, p. 462.
261［450］本も出していた the book he published: Rodger's book was published in France in 1955 as Le Village des Noubas. The English edition dates from 1999. Re National Geographic in February 1951: "With the Nuba Hillmen of Kordofan," text by former colonial officer Robin Strachan. LR's locating Rodger to make a cash offer is evidence of a concerted research effo t. For Cooper see the bibliography.
262［452］クーパーの目には Cooper thought them: Cooper, p. 467.
262［452］「来るのが十年」 "You are ten years": LRVA, p. 22.
262［452］「観光局でも」 "not even a travel bureau": LRM, p. 462.
262［452］「ヌバ族独自の暮らしぶりが」 "to make a record": Luz p. 677. S. F. Nadel worked among the Nuba in 1938-39 and published his book about them in 1947. (See the bibliography.) The universities for which the Nansen Society was gathering material included the Anthropological Institute of Tubingen and the Institute for Scientific Films at Gottingen. The Nansen group included, in addition to Oskar Luz and his son Horst, economist Rolf Engel of the Max-Planck Institute in Munich and educator Friedrich Rothe of the University of Tubingen.
262［452］「ヌバについて知りたい」 "no notion": Mannheim, p. 94.
262［453］「とてもよい取り引き」 "a very good deal": Letter, LR in Munich to KK in Beverly Hills, September 26, 1962. In LRM, there is no mention of her plan as outlined to KK.
262［453］「いつも不機嫌そうで」 "usually grumpy": LRM, p. 464.
263［453］「口を開くたびに」 "he wouldn't work": Ibid., p. 465.
263［453］「美しく、強く」 "what is beautiful": Michel Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 462.
263［454］「大都会の黒人と」 "no different from": LRM, pp. 467-68. LR admits rejecting subjects who would not remove their clothing (LRM, pp. 558-59).
263［454］「丸石の上に」 "A young girl": Ibid., p. 468.
263［454］「黒いニンフ」 "black nymph": Luz, p. 679.
263［454］「暮れかかる日没の」 "One or two": LRVA, pp. 22-23. Nearly identical passages occur in LRM and LRMG. See LRM, p. 468.
263［454］ルツのもっと冷静で Luz's version: Luz, p. 679.
263［454］裸体を必要以上に exploiting nudity: LRM, p. 457.
263［454］「普通のことや日常」 "what is average": Michel Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 462.
263［454］「絵画的要素」 "tableau motif," and "an army": LRM, p. 487.
263［455］「激しい言い争い」 "angry argument": Ibid., p. 474.
264［455］「壊れた」 "shattered": Ibid., p. 468.
264［455］ルツによる二十八ページの記事 Luz's account: See "Proud Primitives." Luz and his associates had produced a thousand color and black-and-white stills, fifteen films, and some eighty tape recordings of Nuba songs and speech (Luz, pp. 677, 698). None of this, of course, was LR's work.
264［455］ロバート・ガードナー Robert Gardner and Odyssey: Gardner, "Can the Will Tnumph?"; int. PW/Gardner, Cambridge, January 26, 1971, transcript 25, p. 2.; and LRM, pp. 505, 521-23. "It was": LRM, p. 521.
264［456］「相手が誰だろうと」 "she couldn't collaborate": Int. PW/Robert Gardner, Cambridge, January 26, 1971 , transcript 25, p. 1.
264［456］「疑いとは無縁の」 "charm ... unemcumbered": Gardner, p. 28; "gullible" and "gentle": ibid., p. 30.
264［456］「彼女は女優だ」 "She is an actress": Int. PW/Robert Gardner, Cambridge, January 26, 1971, transcript 25, p. 3.
264［456］「彼女の作品のいくつかに」 "admiration for the technical": Gardner as quoted by Hussman, p. 15.
264［456］「ああ、彼女はじつに」 "Oh, she's tough": Int. PW/Robert Gardner, Cambridge, January 26, 1971, transcript 25, p. 3.
265［467］「運命が私に与えた」 "one of the worst": Cited in Salkeld, p. 250.
265［457］「母のいない人生など」 "I couldn't envision": LRMG, p. 693.
265［457］ホルスト・ケトナー Horst Kettner: See LRM especially "How I Found Horst," pp. 546ff
265［457］一トン半にもなる三十五個の木箱 cartons and tonnage: Walk, p. 163.
265［458］シュバイツァー Schweitzer: LRM, p. 526 and elsewhere. "How well I understood Albert Schweitzer," she writes.
265［458］「楽園」 "paradise": LRVA, p. 21.
265［458］「この世界のどこにも」 "Nowhere in the world": Letter, LR to KK, from Munich, November 18, 1958.
266［458］「私の夢に出てくる」 "come to me": LRVA, p. 28.
266［459］『ナショナル・ジオグラフィック』 National Geographic: LRM (pp. 504-5) assigns this failure to a missed deadline. See int. PW/James Card, George Eastman House, Rochester, N.Y., tape 24, transcript pp. 4-5. James Card: "National Geographic were willing to buy the slides from her outright and use all of them. They promised to give her any amount of film she needed but they wanted all rights to whatever she would shoot over there, including all American rights to the film she would make. That was completely against anything she felt she could do."
266［459］Ｌ・ロン・ハバード L. Ron Hubbard and apartheid: LRMG, p. 613. The incident is deleted from the English-language version.
266［459］『シュテルン』 Stern: December 14, 1969.
267［460］『ニューズウィーク』 Newsweek: December 16, 1974, p. 94.
267［460］ユードラ・ウェルティ Eudora Welty: New York Times Book Review, December 1, 1974, p. 405.
267［460］ジョナス・メカス Jonas Mekas: Village Voice, November 7, 1974, p. 88.
267［460］カルティエ＝ブレッソン Cartier-Bresson and "more humanity": Cited by Naggar, p. 275.
267［462］「まさに悲劇」「子供たちは」 "real tragedy" and "The children": Mannheim, p. 94.
267［462］「私自身の手になる科学的な」 "a scientific text": Loney, p. 32.
268［462］イギリスの出版社 prospective English publisher: This was Tom Stacey. The book was subsequently issued by Collins.
268［462］シュペーアの助け Speer and editing: LRM, p. 576.
268［462］「救いがたいほど」 "drivel" and "hopelessly racist": Letter, James Faris to SB, September 3, 2005, p. 2.
268［463］「夢にあらわれた」 "I had a dream": LR, People, p. 8; LRM, pp. 588-89.
268［463］「私のヌバ」 "'my' Nuba": LRM, p. 469; LR, Last of the Nuba, p. 10; etc.
268［463］「彼女の事実とは」 "her facts": Faris, in Newsweek. December 13, 1976, p. 44.
268［463］「人類学および民族誌の分野で」 "permanent ... importance": From the dust jacket of the 1995 edition from Havill, London.
268［463］ファリスの批判について LR on Faris: LRM, p. 636.
269［464］「社会について無知」 "ignorant": Faris, "Photographic Encounters," p. 7.
269 European cosmetics: Ibid., pp. 7-8; letter, Faris to SB, September 3, 2005.
269［464］「グロテスクな誇張」 "grotesque perversion," "profoundly," and "grossly": Faris, "Leni Riefenstahl and the Nuba Peoples," pp. 96, 97.
269［464］「広い敷地を」 "a large compound": Letter, Oswald Iten to SB, August 29, 2005.
269［465］ファリスとアイテンも Iten wrote in the Swiss and German press: See Iten, "Bilder und Zerrbilder"; also letter, Oswald Iten to SB, August 29, 2005.
269［465］「写真を撮る人びとには」 "There is something appalling": Cited by Kimmelman, p. 15.
269［465］「まさしく」 "It is as if ": Faris, "Photographic Encounters," p. 9.
270［465］「ヘレーネ・ヤーコプ」 "Helene Jacob": LRM, p. 602.
270［465］「嫉妬にかられて」 "eaten up": Ibid., p. 638.
270［465］「これほど汚い」「この若い学生」 "slander" and "this young": Ibid., pp. 637-38.
270［465］スーザン・ソンタグ Susan Sontag: "Fascinating Fascism," New York Review of Books, February 6, 1975. Citations here are from Under, in which the essay is reprinted with corrections and is (mis)dated 1974.
270［466］「傑作と評することは」 "to call": Sontag, "On Style," in Against Interpretation, p. 25.
270［466］「『意志の勝利』と『オリンピア』は間違いなく」 "certainly the most ravishing," "Triumph," and "ever made": Sontag, "Fascinating Fascism," in Under, p. 95.
270［466］［非情なほどに賢い］ "mercilessly clever": Holthusen, p. 572.
270［466］「ファシスト映画三部作の第三作」 "the third": Sontag, "Fascinating Fascism," in Under, p. 87; "aloof": ibid., p 73; "continuous": ibid., p. 86.
270［467］「人びとが構図の美しさで」 "when people claim": Ibid., p. 97.
270［467］「原始主義の理想」 "primitivist ideal": Ibid., p. 86.
270［467］「美を至上のものとする価値観」 "sanctimonious promotion": Ibid., p. 97.
271［467］「有害な政治的イデオロギーを」 "to filter out": Ibid., p. 95.
271［467］「美よりももっと大事な」 "more than beauty": Ibid., p. 97.
271［467］「ファシスト芸術は」 "fascist art": Ibid., p. 91.
271［467］「十年前には」 "Art that seemed": Ibid., p. 98.
271［467］「ファシズムのエロティシズム」 "eroticization" : Ibid., p. 100.
271［468］「リーフェンシュタールの映画は」 "Riefenstahl's films" and "the ideal of life as art": Ibid., p. 96.
271［468］「彼女は何も考えていない」 "She is no thinker": Ibid "indomitable": ibid., p. 97; "beauty freak":ibid.,p. 85.
271［468］「リーフェンシュタールを告発すべきか」 "the problem with": Sarris, "Notes on," p. 33.
271［468］「何度も交わした会話のなかで」 "In our many conversations": Letter, KK to SB, September 9, 2005.
271［469］「彼女は黒人選手に完全に」 "absolutely fascinated": Int. PW/Heinz von Jaworsky, September 10, 1972, transcript p. 5.
272［469］「黒い肌のほうが」 "I find the black skin": Oui, May 1973, p. 106.
272［469］「リーフェンシュタール現象」 "Riefenstahl phenomenon": Bittorf, p. 228; "the enthusiasm": ibid., pp. 228-31. LR quotes this passage in LRM, p. 632, but the English translation misassigns Bittorf's comments to Vanishing Africa rather than to People of Kau, which LR refers to correctly in LRMG (p. 869).
272［469］「たまに」 "occasionally withdrew": LRM, p. 638.
272［470］「ヌバ族の」 "How dare she": Letter, KK to SB, September 9, 2005.
272［470］フランス人のある批評家 French critic: Cited in LRM, p. 651.
273［471］キース・リチャーズ Keith Richards: Ray Muller, quoted in "Riefenstahl and Jagger," Barista, March 2, 2004, http://dox.media2.org/barista/archives/0436.html.
273［471］「ヌバ御殿」 "the house": Schiff, p. 260. LR moved into the house in 1979.
18 幸運と男たちの目 CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: FORTUNE AND MEN'S EYES
274［472］レニ・リーフェンシュタール LR epigraph: Hitchens, "Interview with a Legend," p. 7.
274［472］スキューバ・ダイビング・スクール scuba diving school: LRM, pp. 585-86.
274［472］「風変わりで繊細な人びと」 "strange impalpable": LRVA, p. 28.
274［473］「とりこに」 "addictive": LR, Wonders, p. 7.
274［473］「外界から守り」 "sheltering me": Ibid.
275［473］「現実世界の『ハロルドとモード』」 "Harold and Maude": Muller, "Besuch," p. 66. Horst grateful: int. Florian Neubert/Ray Muller, Munich, September 15, 2005.
275［474］八十歳近くなってskiing at almost eighty: Letter, LR to Kurt Kreuger, June 23, 1981.
275［474］ニーハンス・クリニック Niehans treatments: LR may have also taken fresh cell treatments in Switzerland, but her clinic of choice was in the German town of Lenggries (Frischzellen Journal, Deutsches Zentrum fur Frischzellen-Therapie, no. 2, 1984, reprinted in Konkret, issue 27, 1985, p. 17).
276［475］「個人的な芸術」「個人のしるし」 "personal art" and "personal signature": Sarris, American Cinema, pp. 15, 19; "the worst film": ibid., p. 17. Sarris's remains the standard work: witty, erudite, occasionally eccentric, but enduringly influential.
276［476］「私が自分がしたくないことは」 "I have": Hitchens, "Interview with a Legend," p. 7.
275［476］「芸術と創作活動」 "Art, creation": Michel Delahaye in Sarris, Interviews, p. 468.
276［476］エイゼンシュテイン Eisenstein: See Berson and Keller for a particularly conservative (political) view. See also Sarris, "Films," where he compares LR to Eisenstein's "flagrant lying" in Ten Days That Shook the World. LR was careful to note that the Berson and Keller article in support of her work was written by an "American Jewish writer" (sic) (Brownlow "Lem Rrefenstahl," p. 18).
277［477］エイモス・ヴォーゲル Amos Vogel: "Can We Now Forget the Evil That She Did?" New York Times, May 13, 1973, section 2, p. 19.
277［477］招待が取り消された disinvited: LRM, p. 449.
277［477］テルライド Telluride and mayor: Andrews, p. 15.
277［478］「苦々しさを感じることなく」 "I have found the strength": LRM, p. 598.
277［478］ソンタグはその動きに注目し Sontag noted both: "Riefenstahl's recent promotion to the status of a cultural monument surely owes to the fact that she is a woman," and "Riefenstahl's defenders ... now include the most influential voices in the avant-garde film establishment" (both on p. 84 in Under).
278［478］文通と手書きの日記の内容を複写し photocopied private correspondence: Peggy Wallace received such papers from LR in Munich in 1971, and they are now part of the author's archive.
278［479］トニー・パルマー Tony Palmer: Int. SB/Tony Palmer, Munich, January 24, 2006. Palmer met with her in the early 1990s to discuss what became of Muller's documentary on her life.
278［479］「彼女はいつ見ても」 "She was always": Brownlow, "Leni Riefenstahl," p. 15.
278［479］「再校の感受性をもったアーティスト」 "an artist": Ibid., p. 16.
278［479］「これまで会ったなかでも」 "among the most": Letter, Kevin Brownlow to SB, Augnst 10, 2005.
278［479］「狡猾なプロパガンダ」 "insidrous propaganda": Brownlow, "Leni Riefenstahl," p. 15.
278［479］「芸術は芸術家を」 "Art transcends": Ibid.
278［479］「レニ・リーフェンシュタールの人間性」 "the humanity": Ibid., p.19.
278［480］ポール・ロータ Paul Rotha: Rotha "Leni Riefenstahl," Film, Spring 1967, pp. 13-14.
278［480］ペギー・アン・ウォレスが LR and Peggy Wallace: Citations are from int. PW/LR, August 8, 1971, Munich, tape 16, transcript 16a, pp. 9-12. The entire explosion regarding Fanck is twentyfour pages long, somewhat less than a half hour of audiotape time.
279［481］「数奇な人生のすべて」「先入観を排し」 "to understand": LRM, p. 3; "to tackle": ibid., p. 656.
279［481］ゴーストライター ghostwriters: Kinkel, p. 294.
279［482］アルバート・アインシュタイン Albert Einstein: The full epigraph reads: "So many things have been written about me, masses of insolent lies and inventions, that I would have perished long ago, had I paid any attention. One must take comfort in the fact that time has a sieve, through which most trivia run off into the sea of oblivion."
279［482］大見出しを掲げ Headlines: These are virtually untranslatable. "Bride" ("Fuhrerbraut ohne Geschlechtsverkehr"--literally "The Fuhrer's Bride Without Sexual Intercourse") is from Rudolf Augstein in Der Spiegel, August 10, 1987; "Idiotic" ("Dumme Plaudereien einer Hofschranze") is from Fritz J. Raddatz in Die Zeit, October 9, 1987.
279［483］カットされたイギリス版 cutting: The English-language version is 656 pages plus index. Scores of deletions, including whole chapters, largely account for the difference. Most of the cuts consist of anecdotes involving personalities not known outside of Germany or center on mountain climbing and skiing.
279［483］「彼女が正直になったのだとしたら」 "when she is honest": Sereny, German Trauma p. 243; "devoid": ibid., pp. 241-42.
279［483］イアン・ブルマ Ian Buruma: "A Lethal Thing of Beauty pp. 3-4.
279［483］「映画界における傑出した」「読者を魅了しないページ」 "one of the" and "does not contain": Simon, New York Times Book Review, September 26, 1993, p.1.
280［483］「彼女が自分に」「大部分は真実」 "Whether" and "a credible account": Ibid., pp. 29,1.
280［484］「彼女は人間として」 "she may have": Ibid., p. 29.
280［484］「誇張」「修正主義」 "turgid" and "revisionist" : Dargis, p. 8.
280［484］「陳腐なたわごと」 "spurious": Ibid., p. 10.
280［484］「歴史からの回避」 "historical dodge": Ibid., p. 9; "damn the subject": ibid., p.10.
280［484］「きわめて愚かな」 "willfully stupid": Ibid., p.10. The "all form" remark is from Stephen Schiff, p. 294.
280［484］「どんな意味があるのか」 "What does it mean": Dargis, p. 10.
280［484］「同義的な選択」 "moral choice": Ibid.
280［485］「倫理観の欠如」 "moral poise": See Chapter 15.
281［486］「あんな嘘には」「回想録の信憑性」 "I had" and "for the credibility": LRM, p. 360.
281［486］ニーナ・グラディツ Nina Gladitz: She had been alerted to Reinhardt's letters by the Union of Persecutees of the Nazi Regime (Vereins der Verfolgten des Nazi-Regimes). Sources for Gladitz unless otherwise indicated include: Gladitz, "Uber alles ist Gras gewachsen ..." ; Enzensberger; and the Gladitz Files, which underlie Chapter 13.
282［486］ラッケンバッハ収容所 typhus in Lackenbach: Lewy, p. 110; and Thurner, p. 44.
282［487］アントン・ベーマー Anton Bohmer and the SS: This testimony was never contradicted and may have stood unchallenged because the guards at Krun were officially drawn from the Salzburg Kripo (or criminal police). Bohmer's memos and directives are always signed with the SS lightning bolt symbol. On a visit the author made to Krun in summer 2005, the mayor of the town said he was disappointed that no reminders of the film remained for historians. At the filming sites, I was unable to find a single resident or innkeeper who would acknowledge having heard of the film or of Riefenstahl.
283［488］「アンナ・マドウ」 "Anna Madou" subterfuge and "Such treachery!": LRM, p. 362.
284［488］「なんたる裏切り」 "outrageously": Ibid., p. 361.
284［489］訴訟を起こすという通告 threats to exhibition: Int. SB/Stefan Drossler, Munich Film Museum, January 25, 2006. The author was present at one such highly cumbersome screening in 2004.
284［489］「戦後、ほぼ全員と」 "We saw": LRM, p. 267; "nothing happened": Der Spiegel, August 16, 2002, p. 32, citing Frankfurter Rundschau, April 27, 2002.
284［490］使われていないシーン outtakes: Int. SB/Stefan Drossler, Munich Film Museum, January 25, 2006. Drossler discussed the issue with Gladitz, who told him the Bundesarchiv informed her it would only confirm the footage's existence at her 1987 trial under subpoena. Drossler himself recently applied to view the footage but was told "There is nothing interesting there."
19 ラスト・ピクチャー・ショー CHAPTER NINETEEN: THE LAST PICTURE SHOW(S)
285［491］レイ・ミュラー Muller epigraph: Muller, "Besuch," Stern, p. 68.
286［492］遺産問題を扱うミュンヘンの法廷 court administering inheritance issues: Letter, Amtsgericht (NachlaBgericht) Munchen to Eckart Riefenstahl and Uta Riefenstahl Flamm, December 28, 1992. A handwritten page attached to the file copy notes the October 23, 1964, date of the "alleged testament." Eckart and Uta Riefenstahl were earlier confirmed as Heinz Riefenstahl's heirs in a letter to their mother, Ilse Collignon, October 15, 1959, from the Amtsgericht Charlottenburg in Berlin (file number: 24 VII R 5955). The death notice requesting Bertha Riefenstahl's death certificate and registry with the inheritance bureau was entered on January 19, 1965, by which time LR had returned from Africa to Munich. Though it asks for a complete list of survivors, only LR is indicated. Todesanzeige, Standesamt III, Munich, Bertha Riefenstahl, file no. 599/93.
286［493］デヴィッド・アーヴィング David Irving: "A Radical's Diary," David Irving's Action Report, Focal Point, http://www.fpp.co.uk/online/99/12/Riefenstahl.html#Riefenstahl. Irving has since been convicted of Holocaust denial in Austria and is serving a prison term there.
287［494］トニー・パルマー Tony Palmer: Int. SB/Tony Palmer, Munich, January 24, 2006. Palmer tried but failed to interest Channel 4 in England. Ironically, Channel 4 was one of the television networks underwriting production of the film that resulted.
287［495］「仕事の困難さ」 "difficulty" and "because no one": Int. Florian Neubert/Ray Muller, Munich, September 15, 2005.
287［495］「レニはつねに」 "She always" Cited in Lenssen, "Leben," p. 116, from Frankfurter Rundschau, March 26, 1994.
287［495］「リーフェンシュタールの名前」 "Just being": Starkman,p. 22.
288［496］「最初の十四日間」 "The first ... very beginning": Int. Florian Neubert/Ray Muller, Munich, September 15, 2005.
288［496］「レニ・リーフェンシュタールがまたしても」 "she found":Ibid.
288［497］「非公式の」「個人的な用途」 "unofficral" and "for private use": Ibid.
289［497］「レニは撮影技師に」 "She tried to tell": Ibid. Muller's version of the walking-talking argument comes from the same interview. A close viewing of the film suggests that it was a case of actress nerves rather than unfamiliarity with the technology.
289［499］「私は他の誰よりも」 "I think": Cited in Lenssen, Potsdam, p. 116, from Frankfurter Rundschau, March 26, 1994.
289［499］「彼女は七十年のあいだ」 "she had": Sklar, p. 22.
290［499］レニは完成した映画が気に入らずLR on film: Lenssen, "Die funf Karrieren der Leni Riefenstahl," epd Film, vol. 1, 1996, p. 29, cited in Trimborn, p. 497.
290［500］「彼女を信じるとしたら」 "If you believe her": Rafferty, New Yorker, March 28, 1994, p. 108.
290［500］ロジャー・エバート Roger Ebert: Chicago Sun-Times, June 24, 1994.
290［500］「大きな緊張」 "tremendous": Muller, cited by Starkman, p. 22.
290［500］「人格が分裂している」 "split personality": Int. Florian Neubert/Ray Muller, Munich, September 15, 2005.
290［500］「よいシーンを撮るためなら」 "would do anything": Sklar, p. 24.
291［502］「彼女は共感の海に」 "she dove": Narration to Ein Traum.
291［502］「ずっとここにいたい」 "I'd like" and following citations: Ibid.
292［504］レニの涙「じつにみごとだった」 LR's tears and "I was fascinated": Muller,"Besuch," Stern, p. 68. The incident is preserved in Ein Traum von Afrika.
292［505］「レニらしい」 "Typical": Muller, "Besuch," p. 68.
292［505］モルヒネを注射して morphine injections: Abend-Zeitung, September 10, 2003, p. 5.
293［506］「世界一きれいな」 "screen saver": Unsigned television review, ARD network, August 17, 2002; "Triumph of the Gill," Eric Rentschler, in conversation with the author.
294［507］「汚い恥知らずの」 "filthy": Cited by Erik Eggers, Tagesspiegel Kultur, August 16, 2002; "we saw": LRM, p. 267; "Nothing happened": Der Spiegel, August 16, 2002, p. 32, citing Frankfurter Rundschau, April 27, 2002.
294［507］確実な証拠が evidence presented: Virtually every news organization in Germany covered this important story. The lists of names are fully documented in Reimar Gilsenbach and Otto Rosenberg's "Riefenstahl's Liste" in Berliner Zeitung Magazin, February 17, 2001, almost a year and a half before the complaint was officially registered. The complaint was triggered by LR's remarks of April 2002.
294［508］スポークスマンのジョルダーノとヴァルラフ Spokesmen Giordano and Wallraff: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 16, 2002.
295［509］クルト・ホール Kurt Holl: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 16, 2002, and Freie Presse Politik, August 17, 2002, p.1.
295［509］「シンティとロマが」 "I regret": The statement was reprinted widely. Here it is quoted from Frankfurter Neue Presse Kulture, August 16, 2002, 22:59.
295［509］「芸術のために」 "Is it legitimate":LRM,p. 363.
295［509］「名誉毀損」 "slander": Ibid.
20 終焉のとき CHAPTER TWENTY: AFTERLIFE
296［510］ レニ・リーフェンシュタールの言葉Riefenstahl epigraph: LR to Ray Muller in Ein Traum von Afrika.
296［510］ミュラーはレニに LR to Ray Muller: In Ein Traum von Afrika.
296［510］「慈悲深い休息」 "blessed relief": The phrase occurs in both Wonderful, Horrible Llfe and Ein Traum.
297［511］文化大臣 Culture Minister: Cited in Der Tagesspiegel Kultur, September 10, 2003, p. 23, and by Hannah Cleaver, "Admired and Hated-Hitler's Filmmaker Dies," Telegraph (London), September 14, 2003. The citation is an amalgam.
297［512］シュレンドルフ Schlondorff, Glas, Fest: All cited in "Eine Meisterin aus Deutschland," Der Tagesspiegel Kultur, September 10, 2003, p. 23.
297［512］その他の論評 Other commentary: All citations from BBC News, September 10, 2003. They are, in order, from Die Welt, Die Welt, Berliner Tagesspiegel, Das Bild, Berliner Tagesspiegel, Die Tageszeitung, Berliner Zeitung, and Das Bild.
297［512］ジョディ・フォスター LR and Jodie Foster: Lewis Beale, "Jodie Foster's Nazi-Era Era 'Project,'" New York Daily News, December 2, 1999, p. 24.
298［513］「今日」 "Nobody making films": Sontag, "Fascinating Fascism," p. 95.
298［513］映画史研究家 film historian: Thomas Elsaesser, in Chu, p. 2.
298［514］トーマス・マン Thomas Mann: Magic Mountain, p. 112.
298［514］デヴィッド・トムソン David Thomson: Biographical Dictionary, pp. 633-34.
298［514］シモーヌ・ヴェイユ Simone Weil: "The Iliad" or "The Poem of Force " (pamphlet; Wallingford, Pa.: Pendle Hill Publications, 1993), p. 36.
Alpert Hollis. "The Lively Ghost of Leni." Saturday Reyiew, March 25, 1972, pp. 65-67.
Andrews, Rena. "Hitler's Favorite Filmmaker Honored at Colorado Festival." New York Times, September 15, 1974.
Augstein Rudolf. "Leni, die Fuhrerbraut.'" Der Spiegel, no. 33, August 10, 1987, p. 75.
Balazs, Bela. "Der Fall Dr. Fanck." In Fanck, Sturme uber dem Montblanc.
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Barsam, Richard Meran. "Leni Riefenstahl: Artifice and Truth in a World Apart." Film Comment, November 1973.
Berson, Arnold, and Joseph Keller. "Shame and Glory in the Movies." National Reyiew, January 14, 1964.
Bittorf, Wilhelm. "Blut und Hoden." Der Spiegel, October 25, 1976, pp. 228-36.
Brown, Georgia. "The Empire Strikes Back." Village Voice, March 22, 1994.
Brownlow, Kevin. "Leni Riefenstahl." Film (London), no. 47, Winter 1966.
--. Introduction to Riefenstahl, Afrika.
Bulgakowa, Oksana. " 'Riefenstein': Demontage eines Klischees." In Potsdam Filmmuseum, Leni Riefenstahl.
Buruma, Ian. "Blood Libel. " New Yorker, April 16, 2001.
--. "A Lethal Thing of Beauty." Times Literary Supplement, no. 4671, October 9, 1992, pp. 3-4.
Chu, Jeff. "In Her Own Image." Time Europe, August I, 2003.
Cooper, Merian C., [and Ernst B. Schoedsack]. "Two Fighting Tribes of the Sudan." National Geographic, October 1929, pp. 464-86.
Culbert, David, and Martin Loiperdinger. "Leni Riefenstahl's Tag der Freiheit: The 1935 Nazi Party Rally Film." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, vol. 12 no. I, 1992, pp. 3-40. (See also Loiperdinger and Culbert.)
Dalichow, Barbel. "...verweile doch du bist so schon..." In Potsdam Filmmuseum, Leni Riefenstahl.
Dalichow, Barbel, and Claudia Lenssen. "Focus Leni Riefenstahl." In Potsdam Filmmuseum, Leni Riefenstahl.
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Deford, Frank. "The Ghost of Berlin." Sports Illustrated, vol. 65, no. 5, August 4, 1986.
Delahaye Michel. "Leni and the Wolf: Interview with Leni Riefenstahl." Cahiers du Cinema in English, no. 5, pp. 48-55. (Also see Sarris.)
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--. "The Nazi Who Won't Die--Leni Riefenstahl at 100." Counter Punch, September 11, 2002. www.counterpunch.org.
--. "Photographic Encounters: Leni Riefenstahl in Africa." Lecture. "Encounters with Photography." Iziko Museums of Capetown, South Africa, 2002.
Feiden, Max Karl. "Leni Riefenstahl sucht 'come back in Afrika." Hamburger Anzeiger, October 30, 1958.
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--. "The Past Is Another Country." Independent Weekend Review, February 5, 2000, p. 8.
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Gladitz Nina. "Uber alles ist Gras gewachsen..." Der Funke, October 29, 2003.
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Gregor, Ulrich. "A Comeback for Leni Riefenstahl?" Film Comment, Winter 1965.
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--. "An Interview with a Legend." Film Comment, Winter 1965.
--. "Leni Riefenstahl Interviewed by Gordon Hitchens." Film Culture, Spring 1973.
--. "New Book on Leni Riefenstahl." Review of Berg-Pan. Variety, May 13, 1981.
--. " The Sieve of Time Book Review." Variety, May 17, 1993, p. 119.
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Iten, Oswald. "Bilder und Zerrbilder der Nuba." Tagesanzeiger Magazin, no. 50, December 17, 1977, pp. 6-45.
Jager, Ernst. "How Lem Riefenstahl Became Hitler's Girlfriend." Parts I-XI, serialized in Hollywood Tribune, April 28-July 17, 1939. In Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, vol. 13, no. 4, microfiche supplement 2.
James, Clive. "Hitler's Unwitting Exculpator" and "Postscript to Goldhagen." Both in Even as We Speak. Longer version and afterthoughts of James's "Blaming the Germans," as published in The New Yorker, April 22, 1996, pp. 44ff.
--. "Postscript to Goldhagen." See preceding entry.
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--. "Leben und Werk." In Potsdam Filmmuseum, Leni Riefenstahl.
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--. "Leni Riefenstahl's Tag der Freiheit: The 1935 Nazi Party Rally Film." Historical Journal of Film Radio and Television, vol. 12, no. I, 1992, pp. 3-40.
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--. "Requiem fur eine Nuba." Kristall, no. 22, 1964.
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